“There are many circuits for current detection. Generally, the current signal is converted into a voltage signal, and then the voltage is detected through the AD port of the single-chip microcomputer. For large voltage and high current occasions, it is generally necessary to reduce the voltage before testing. The current transformer is this principle. It uses the principle of electromagnetic induction, a device that converts a large current in the primary to a small current in the secondary.
There are many circuits for current detection. Generally, the current signal is converted into a voltage signal, and then the voltage is detected through the AD port of the single-chip microcomputer. For large voltage and high current occasions, it is generally necessary to reduce the voltage before testing. The current transformer is this principle. It uses the principle of electromagnetic induction, a device that converts a large current in the primary to a small current in the secondary.
The number of turns of the primary winding of the current transformer is generally small, and it is connected in the circuit of the measured current. The following figure shows the current transformer.
The current transformer is widely used in the overcurrent detection of the induction cooker. The following figure is a part of the current detection circuit of a current transformer. Its ultimate purpose is to test the working current of the circuit, so as to continuously adjust the power output of the induction cooker to keep its work stable. The circuit is mainly composed of current transformers, resistors, capacitors and so on. Working principle: After the mains passes through the power transformer, the secondary voltage is obtained. After being rectified by the rectifier diodes D1-D4, it is filtered by the electrolytic capacitor MC1 to obtain a relatively smooth DC current, and the signal obtained after dividing the voltage by R3 and R4 is sent to IC, IC detects the magnitude of the voltage sent over to judge the magnitude of the current. The greater the voltage, the greater the current. In this way, the IC will control the on-time of the IGBT switch to ensure the stability of the power output. Some current detection circuits are composed of LM339, which compares the voltages of the two to output a signal.
The shortage of automotive Chips at the end of last year choked the automotive industry. This industry-wide supply shortage has once again made people realize the importance of automotive chips, and relevant departments have also attached great importance to this.
Before the Spring Festival, the First Division of Equipment Industry and Electronic Information Division of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology held discussions with representatives of major automotive chip suppliers. The First Division of Equipment Industry and the Department of electronic Information of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology suggest that automotive chip suppliers attach great importance to the Chinese market, increase production capacity allocation, improve the efficiency of circulation links, strengthen coordination with upstream and downstream enterprises, and strive to alleviate the shortage of automotive chip supply, so as to stabilize the Chinese auto industry. Provide strong support for healthy development.
Compared with the understanding of consumer electronic chips, people seem to have doubts about the “lethality” of automotive chips. Automotive chips are the popular name for automotive-grade chips. In modern automotive products, automotive chips are equivalent to “brains”.
“With the development of traditional vehicles to new energy vehicles and intelligent networked vehicles, more and more chips are installed, and the requirements for intelligence are also increasing. Things that were previously judged by drivers are now slowly being handed over to chips. In this way, cars will use more and more chips, and the computing power requirements of chips will become higher and higher.” Xu Haidong, deputy chief engineer of China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, said.
The grade is second only to the military grade, and there are many types of automotive chips
Due to the tight supply of global automotive chips at the end of last year, many big-name car companies had to take measures to reduce or even stop production. Global car manufacturers including Volkswagen, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Subaru, Nissan, etc. There have been forced production cuts. Market agency IHS Markit predicts that in the first quarter of 2021, car production will be about 672,000 fewer than initially expected; US Bernstein Research predicts that due to a global shortage of automotive chips in 2021, it is expected to cause as many as The reduction in vehicle production of 4.5 million vehicles is equivalent to nearly 5% of global vehicle production.
Many people’s understanding of the importance of chips comes from consumer electronics, and a small chip can achieve powerful functions. Today’s cars are getting more and more powerful and smarter, all of which can be attributed to the application of automotive chips.
From the perspective of the grade division of the entire chip industry, there are military grade, automotive grade, industrial grade and consumer grade. Among them, automotive grade chips have higher requirements for reliability, consistency and stability, second only to military grade.
“Vehicle-grade chips are very different from consumer-grade chips. Automotive-grade chips need to face a harsher environment, require higher reliability, and have stricter requirements for automotive-grade chips.” Xu Haidong said, “Therefore, chip manufacturers are required to The requirements for the production line of automotive chips in China are also more stringent, and the production line of automotive-grade chips can be transformed to produce other chips, but the production line of other chips cannot be easily transformed to produce automotive-grade chips.”
In terms of classification, automotive chips are roughly divided into the following categories. One is the control chip responsible for computing power, that is, the processor and controller chips, such as engine, chassis and body control, as well as central control, assisted driving (ADAS) and The second is the IGBT power chip responsible for power conversion, which is generally used in the power supply and interface of electric vehicles; the third is the sensor chip, which is mainly used for various radars, airbags, and tire pressure monitoring. Automotive chips can also be divided into main control chips, functional chips, power chips and sensor chips.
From the requirements of automotive-grade chips, it needs to adapt to extreme temperatures from -40°C to -150°C, high vibration, dust, electromagnetic interference, and humidity of 0%-100%. Generally, the design life of automotive-grade chips 15 years or 200,000 kilometers. From the perspective of architecture, automotive-grade chips need to have an independent security island design. In key modules, computing modules, buses, memory, etc., there are ECC and CRC data proofreading to provide functional safety for automotive-grade chips.
Generally speaking, it takes 2-3 years for a vehicle-grade chip to complete the vehicle-grade certification and enter the OEM supply chain. Once entered, it generally has a supply cycle of 5-10 years.
Car chips are equivalent to car brains, and high-end models need to be equipped with more than 150 chips
Since the first Ford Model T rolled off the assembly line and walked out of the workshop in 1908, people have formed the inherent cognition of traditional cars: “four chairs + four wheels + engine”. This perception continued until 1977. General Motors first installed an electronic control unit (ECU) on a car in 1977, which enabled the Display of information such as speed, fuel tank, mileage and engine.
In the following time, the importance of automotive-grade chips in automobiles has continued to increase. A car can not only complete the driving from the origin to the destination faster, but also have auxiliary functions such as entertainment and navigation. More than 20 years ago, cars began to enter the era of electronic control. Today, at least 40 kinds of chips are installed in an ordinary car, and more than 150 kinds of chips need to be installed in high-end models. It is reported that in the 1970s, the cost of automotive electronic components accounted for about 5%. In 2005, the cost of automotive electronic components increased to about 15%. In 2019, the average cost of a new car chip was $329.
In the era of electronically controlled cars, chips have long become the “decision-making brain” of the car and the “nervous system throughout the car”. For example, in the era of purely mechanical engines, the timing of intake and exhaust of the engine and the duration of valve opening and closing are completely determined by the camshaft and cam. When the engine is manufactured, its intake and exhaust are also fixed. When the engine enters the era of electronic control, the computer intelligently adjusts the timing and duration of valve opening and closing, intentionally delaying the closing of the intake valve and opening the exhaust valve in advance to make the intake and exhaust more sufficient and improve performance; if there is a lack of chips, the most intuitive The performance is the lack of fuel consumption and emission control.
This time, it is the MCU (Micro Control Unit) used in the ESP (Electronic Stability Control System) and the MCU in the ECU, which need to be built with 8-inch wafers. ESP is a part of the main safety system of the car and an extension of the ABS anti-lock braking system. In the 1980s, ABS was still the configuration of luxury cars. With the mass production and promotion of ESP, it has become the most basic safety configuration of the car; ECU covers functions such as adjusting windows, seats, lights, etc. In today’s mid-to-high-end models, these two types of chips are essential.
In fact, under the dual drive of new energy vehicles and autonomous driving, automotive-grade chips are subverting traditional industries. With the maturity of ADAS and autonomous driving technologies, a large amount of image data and radar data processing are required. Power requirements are also increasing. “With the development of traditional vehicles to new energy vehicles and intelligent networked vehicles, more and more chips are installed, and the requirements for intelligence are also increasing. What used to be judged by the driver is now slowly handed over to the chip, so that Cars will use more and more chips, and the computing power requirements of chips will become higher and higher.” Xu Haidong said.
In fact, from the perspective of the industry, when cars enter the era of electronic control and transition to electrification, cars and chips are already inseparable; and the outbreak of the chip crisis may also mean that industry innovation is underway.
The VC DragonCam integrates an image sensor, a powerful Snapdragon processor and a common interface on a 65 x 40 mm board. The company takes full advantage of the computing power and cost-effectiveness of the quad-core processor, which has been used in countless industrial-grade embedded vision systems. Validated in consumer products. The VC DragonCam panel camera integrates an image sensor, various common interfaces and a processor running on a Debian-based operating system in a small form factor of 65 x 40 mm, making it ideal for OEMs of programmable embedded vision systems Design choices.
The VC DragonCam features 12 GPUs, 1 GB of memory and up to 32 GB of flash memory, and integrates standard interfaces for Gigabit Ethernet and RS-232 integrated onboard. Two adapter boards with additional interfaces serve as regular interfaces for easy connection of peripherals, ideal for rapid prototyping. VisionComponents has integrated the high-end CMOS sensor Sony Pregius IMX 273 in a new family of embedded vision systems. With a 1456 x 1088 pixel resolution and 225 fps frame rate, this global shutter sensor is best suited for applications with short exposure times and high speeds. In addition to monochrome models, color cameras are also available on request. VC DragonCam models with other Sony sensors are in development. As with all VC cameras, the manufacturer will ensure the product will be available for a long time.
Vision Components is a leading international manufacturer of embedded vision systems. The company produces freely programmable cameras with powerful onboard CPUs that can perform image processing tasks independently without the need for an additional computer. Vision Components provides OEMs with versatile Linux-based embedded systems for 2D and 3D image processing in the form of onboard cameras and protective cases. At the same time, the company has added more and more ultra-compact MIPI camera boards that connect to a variety of different CPU boards.In addition, Vision Components provides software libraries and develops them according to customer requirements Customized Solutions. The company’s team of experts has extensive knowledge and over 20 years of experience in imaging applications. Headquartered in Ettlingen, southwestern Germany, the company was founded in 1996 by Michael Engel, the inventor of the first industrial-grade smart camera. Several world firsts were subsequently created, including the world’s first smart vision sensor and the first embedded 3D laser profiler. Today, VisionComponents has sales offices in the United States and Japan, and works with local partners in more than 25 countries, caring for customers around the world and supporting customers with expertise.
On November 4, 2021, at a new product launch conference in Shanghai, China, Imagination announced the launch of its first GPU IP product, IMG CXT, along with the PowerVR Photon ray tracing architecture. By adding Photon hardware ray tracing capabilities, IMG CXT realizes Another major leap forward in GPU IP, capable of delivering incredible performance for gaming and other graphics processing applications.
Before understanding the new products brought by Imagination, we must first understand what ray tracing technology is. Ray tracing is a game-changing technology that can bring a quantum leap in graphical realism. By simulating the behavior of light in the real world, it can create three-dimensional (3D) scenes that are almost indistinguishable from real life.
Ray tracing has existed for a long time. For example, special effects movies such as “Avatar”, “Ready Player One”, and “Out of Control Player” have used related technologies to pursue the ultimate picture quality through ray tracing technology to do special effects. screen processing. However, for a long time, due to the complexity of computation brought by this technology and the consumption of a large amount of computing resources, only desktop PCs and game consoles can support ray tracing solutions, and they are limited to mid-to-high-end products released in recent years. There has been no efficient solution for mobile.
Today, mobile developers and gamers can now also experience this incredible rendering technology and full hardware acceleration thanks to the IMG CXT from Imagination and the revolutionary PowerVR Photon architecture.
Revolutionary breakthrough with PowerVR Photon
As ray tracing technology becomes more important in a variety of graphics processing applications, Imagination has also defined a ray tracing class system designed to help developers and OEMs have a clear understanding of the ray tracing acceleration available now and in the future Function of the solution.
According to Dr. Shi Xin, Vice President of Strategic Marketing and Ecology of Imagination China, just like autonomous driving is divided into L1-L4 levels, Imagination has made a Ray Tracing Level System (RTLS) for ray tracing, ranging from Level 0 (Level 0) to Level 5. (Level 5) a total of 6 levels, specifically including:
L0 traditional solution;
Software solution on L1 traditional GPU;
L2 Ray-Bounding Box and Ray-Triangle Tester;
L3 has hardware BVH processing capability;
L4 has hardware BVH processing capability and coherence classification capability;
L5 Coherent BVH processing with BVH hardware generator.
The PowerVR Photon architecture used by the IMG CXT is already RTLS level 4, which is much higher than the software ray tracing solutions that are available today. “Today is the first time that we have achieved the fourth-level hardware processing capability in the world, and it is still on the mobile side. If this technology is required by customers, we can also use it on the data center and PC side.” Dr. Shi Xin said.
According to reports, the main feature of the PowerVR Photon architecture is RAC, a new low-power dedicated hardware GPU component that accelerates and offloads more light from shader cores than the less efficient RTLS Level 2 architecture. Track calculations. RAC contains ray storage, ray task scheduler, and coherence concentrator, and is tightly coupled with two 128-wide Unified Shader Clusters (USCs) with high-speed dedicated data paths for the most efficient and lowest-power ray Track deployments.
Ray Store saves ray data structures on-chip during processing and provides high-bandwidth read and write access to all cells in the RAC, eliminating the need to store or read ray data to dynamic random access memory (DRAM) resulting in reduced speed or increased power consumption. The Ray Task Scheduler can offload tasks from a shader cluster and deploy and trace ray workloads with dedicated hardware while maintaining high ray throughput and low power consumption. The unique Coherency Gatherer unit analyzes all rays in propagation and binds rays across the scene into multiple coherent groups, enabling them to be processed with greater efficiency.
Thanks to Imagination’s multi-core technology, the PowerVR Photon architecture is scalable for cloud, data center and PC markets. This enables FP32 rasterization performance of up to 9TFLOPS (teraflops per second) and ray tracing performance of over 7.8GRay/s, while delivering 2 times higher than today’s RTLS level 2 or 3 ray tracing solutions .5x power efficiency.
IMG CXT delivers desktop-quality visuals on mobile
Taking the newly launched GPU IP product IMG CXT as an example, the IMG CXT-48-1536 RT3 core has three Ray Acceleration Clusters (RAC), which can provide an overall performance of up to 1.3GRay/s. This provides realistic ray-traced shadows, reflections, global illumination and ambient occlusion effects at high frame rates within the power budget of mobile devices.
IMG CXT is also a major step forward in rasterized graphics processing performance, delivering a 50% increase in compute, texture and geometry performance compared to Imagination’s previous generation GPU IP. Its low-power superscalar architecture delivers high performance at low clock frequencies for excellent frame rate per watt (FPS/W) efficiency, while Imagination Image Compression (IMGIC) technology can significantly reduce bandwidth requirements .
The IMG CXT is also well suited for ultra-high quality automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI) platforms. It enables realistic vehicle imagery in surround view, representation of dense urban areas in satellite navigation, and mixed reality-enabled head-up displays (HUDs), digital speedometers and other information displays. It also provides a premium in-car gaming and entertainment experience while occupants wait for the vehicle to charge.
As can be seen from some of the demo images shown on site, ray-traced global illumination adds excellent ambient lighting effects to objects in the scene, achieving the most realistic lighting. At the same time, the CXT RT3 can deliver this visual quality at a native 1080P resolution and a frame rate (FPS) of 30-60 within the power budget of a mobile device.
In summary, the highlights of IMG CXT include:
1. For the first time, desktop-quality ray-traced visuals have been achieved on mobile IP;
2. The industry’s first RTLS level 4 ray tracing architecture;
3. Power efficiency is 2.5 times higher than existing RTLS class 2/3 solutions;
4. Scalable for desktop and data center applications (up to 9 TFLOPS of FP32 rasterization performance and over 7.8 GRay/s ray tracing performance);
5. Computational, texture and geometry performance increased by 50% compared to previous generation GPUs;
6. Licensed in multiple markets.
As a company with nearly 10 years of investment in the field of ray tracing technology, Imagination has extended ray tracing to the mobile market through its new PowerVR Photon architecture through long-term technology accumulation and precipitation. IMG CXT also provides developers with a The hardware components dedicated to accelerating ray tracing, compared with other solutions, the higher power consumption and area efficiency provided by IMG CXT are not only sought after by many developers, but also received from Perfect World, Tencent and other partners. Unanimously praised.
It is worth noting that Imagination also mentioned that in addition to users, IP manufacturers have the most indispensable chip customers. IP technology is ultimately carried by Chips. The new CXT architecture has been authorized to several customers around the world. , they are already designing based on Imagination’s technical architecture.
After the product launch, Mr. Bai Nong, Chairman of Imagination China, Mr. Liu Guojun, Vice President of Imagination China, General Manager of Imagination, Dr. Shi Xin, Vice President of Strategic Market and Ecology of Imagination China, and Mr. Kristof Beets, Vice President of Imagination Technology Foresight, also pointed out that many products The technical details were answered to the media present.
When asked about the efficiency of ray tracing technology in complex scene environments, Kristof said that in complex scenes, shaders are required to complete the rendering of the scene, and the resources and power consumption to be consumed at this time are very large. , and Imagination is now equivalent to offloading this part of the work from the original shader to the dedicated ray tracing hardware part, which is done by the ray tracing part. When the load of this rendering is offloaded to more dedicated hardware, it must be more efficient.
As for when consumers will be able to experience the effects of Imagination’s ray tracing technology products, Kristof said that this CXT license with ray tracing capabilities has been given to several customers in many countries around the world. According to the conventional process, it takes 18-24 months from IP authorization to SOC design, to tape-out, then to the platform, and then to the market. It is expected that the final product will be available and experienced by consumers as soon as 2023. to the effects of a hardware ray tracing solution.
Magna and Venier have announced that they have entered into a definitive merger agreement whereby Magna will acquire Venier, a leader in automotive safety technology.
Under the agreement, Magna will acquire all issued and outstanding shares of Venier for $31.25 per share in cash, an equity value of $3.8 billion and an enterprise value of $3.3 billion, including Venier’s cash, as of 2021 Debt and other debt-like items on March 31.
The acquisition will give Magna the world’s leading advanced driver assistance systems (“ADAS”) business. The acquisition also expands Magna’s ADAS business with key customers, providing access to new customers and access to new regions, including in Asia.
Magna wants to operate Venier’s Arriver™ sensor perception and driving strategy software platform as a separate business unit, in line with Venier’s current approach. In addition, Magna will gain Veoneer’s global leadership in restraint control systems.
Upon completion of the transaction, Venier will be combined with Magna’s existing ADAS business and integrated into Magna’s Electronics Division. The combined business will build on the companies’ relationships with automotive customers, suppliers and technology partners to develop best-in-class products.
After nearly 4 rounds of suppression, whether Huawei’s mobile phone business can stop the decline and seek opportunities to rise, Hongmeng system will take on a lot of responsibility in the future. In the words of Huawei executives, in addition to building Huawei’s own operating system and ecosystem, Hongmeng System must also buy time for Huawei’s hardware rise.
At 8 pm on June 2, Huawei officially announced the launch of a new generation of smart terminal operating systems and products with the new system. June 2 will be a highlight in Huawei’s development history.
From a potential point of view, if Hongmeng becomes famous in the first battle, US companies will not be able to cover the sky with one hand in the field of operating systems. The emergence of Hongmeng will end the history of domestic mobile phones without an operating system, and will also break the monopoly of Google and Apple. However, with the release of the Hongmeng system, the attitude of friends and businessmen made Huawei see the reality.
5 silent only 2 support
For Hongmeng to succeed, it needs not only various breakthroughs in technology, but also the number of users and the support of ecological partners to support it. , 5 remained silent, and only 2 expressed support. This is not good news for the upcoming release of Hongmeng.
It is understood that several domestic Huawei friends, although they have previously stated that they will not rule out companies that have further cooperation with Hongmeng, but when June comes, domestic companies such as Xiaomi and OV have adopted a silent response to whether they are compatible with Hongmeng. Attitude. Even from the previous development process, you can still see a trace of unfriendly atmosphere. For example, employees of a mobile phone manufacturer have publicly ridiculed the Hongmeng system on social platforms, and ZTE earlier has clearly rejected Hongmeng.
Opposite to the top 5 manufacturers are Honor and Meizu. These two manufacturers are supportive of Huawei Hongmeng. Meizu has previously stated that it has access to the Hongmeng ecosystem, but it is limited to its smart home business. Meizu mobile phones are still not compatible with the Hongmeng system, and the same is true of other manufacturers.
Honor upgrade Hongmeng OS system mobile phone model table
It is a little regrettable that compared with the other five mobile phone manufacturers, the strength of these two companies is still weaker. Although Meizu used to be a leader in the mobile phone industry, after several years of development, Meizu is now a different person, and Meizu is basically invisible in the ranking of market share. And Honor has just become independent from Huawei, and the chip supply chain and market share are slowly recovering. The addition of the two of them is only a drop in the bucket for Hongmeng’s goal of 300 million users.
I have to say that this is the reality. As Huawei executives said, creating a mobile operating system is only 1% complete, and the remaining 99% requires the joint efforts of all mobile phone manufacturers. It can be seen that how Huawei can make its peers recognize Hongmeng will be one of the difficulties in future work.
The reason why Xiaomi OV does not respond to Huawei Hongmeng OS for the time being
The reason why domestic manufacturers such as Xiaomi OV are waiting and watching, I personally think it may be because of the following points.
First of all, the Hongmeng OS system is still immature, and its immaturity is mainly in the application ecology. After all, the IOS ecology and Android ecology are often millions of apps, but the application ecology construction of Hongmeng OS is still in its infancy.
Secondly, although Hongmeng OS has been open sourced, and Huawei has donated the core foundation of Hongmeng OS, the Hongmeng OS system has not been open sourced to larger memory devices.
It is reported that the current Hongmeng OS is only open source to devices with memory below 128MB, and may open source to devices with memory between 128MB and 4G in the near future, and open source to devices with memory above 4G will be later.
Nowadays, smartphones often have more than 4G of memory, and even the memory is as high as 12G. Huawei does not open source, and domestic manufacturers such as Xiaomi OV naturally cannot respond immediately.
Once again, it is Fuchsia OS, an IoT operating system officially publicly available by Google on May 26.
As early as 2016, the magic secret code appeared on GitHub, and it was Google who was developing a new operating system called “Fuchsia”, which was built to enable cross-platform operation.
Since then, the operating system has been continuously improved, and Huawei, Xiaomi, OPPO, and Vivo have all contributed code to Fuchsia OS.
And Xiaomi OV has been deeply involved in the Android ecosystem for many years, so for them, I am afraid that Fuchsia OS is more intimate than Hongmeng.
Finally, because of Huawei.
For example, after Microsoft entered the hardware field, manufacturers such as Lenovo and Dell opposed it, because Windows is Microsoft, and Microsoft wants to sell Windows devices, which is equivalent to direct competition with manufacturers such as Lenovo and Dell.
Fortunately, Microsoft only makes high-end devices and competes directly with Apple. The purpose is to improve the quality of Windows devices, and the opposition from major manufacturers is a little less.
Today, Huawei’s situation is similar to Microsoft’s, because Hongmeng OS is Huawei, and Huawei itself builds mobile devices based on Hongmeng OS. Under such circumstances, domestic manufacturers such as Xiaomi OV naturally have to figure out Huawei’s mind.
The three giants officially entered the game
We see that Hongmeng’s partners come from the fields of home furnishing, travel, education, office, etc., including Midea, Supor, iFLYTEK, BOE, 360 and other companies, and they have joined Hongmeng’s “circle of friends”.
In the past few days, Gree also announced to join as a partner of Hongmeng. As an attempt of a domestic system, Hongmeng has also received support from many banks.
At present, three banks, Bank of China, China CITIC Bank (credit card), and China Guangfa Bank (credit card), have taken the lead in announcing access to the Hongmeng operating system.
Bank of China announced that, as a strategic partner of Huawei, combined with the functional characteristics of Hongmeng, it took the lead in launching the atomic service of “BOC Foreign Currency Cash Reservation”, laying out a new ecology of open banking scenarios, and actively exploring lightweight services. He also said that in the future, it will work with Huawei to continue to explore the new technologies and service methods brought by Hongmeng, and try to launch financial scene services based on “voice arousal” and “multi-terminal collaboration”.
China CITIC Bank stated in its announcement that using the HarmonyOS atomization service, customers do not need to download the APP, and can use the “China CITIC Bank” service card to apply for a China CITIC Bank debit card and check the progress. Through the simple operation mode, the convenience of user card application and progress inquiry is improved.
The official WeChat account of China Guangfa Bank credit card stated that Guangfa officially became the first member of Huawei’s Hongmeng operating system ecosystem. As the first credit card application in the banking industry to adapt to Hongmeng, the “Discover Wonder” app fully supports the localization of the operating system. GF Credit Card said that both in terms of underlying technology and products, GF Credit Card has worked closely with Huawei, and GF Credit Card is also one of the first banks to support Huawei Pay. ?
In addition to the above three banks, it is reported that many financial institutions are now testing the Hongmeng system. Many people in the bancassurance industry believe that from the perspective of financial institutions, combining the powerful functions and scalability of the Hongmeng system is conducive to launching more efficient products and services for users, and more financial institutions are expected to participate in the future.
Because of the open source nature of Hongmeng system, it is not only compatible with various terminal products, but also can be applied to the ecology of different scenarios. It is believed that with the arrival of the Hongmeng system, it may bring new changes to the financial industry such as banks.
Sometimes, for enterprises, in addition to considering commercial interests, there will also be a certain overall view, especially for related enterprises such as banks.
To what extent the Hongmeng system can develop, in addition to Huawei’s basic work, it is inseparable from the support of various companies.
Does China really need the Hongmeng system?
No, China doesn’t really need the Hongmeng system, what China needs is its own system.
CCell Renewables is a marine natural science company that aims to restore and plant newcoral reefto curb coastal erosion and improve marine ecosystems. More than 70% of the world’s coastlines are eroding, 200 million people worldwide depend on the protection provided by coral reefs, and communities and livelihoods are at risk in many habitats around the world, new data shows.
The CCell reef planting system is based on the electrolysis of seawater, depositing calcium carbonate (limestone) on a large steel frame with anodes and cathodes (electrodes), giving new reefs early structure. This technology is a revolutionary breakthrough, it takes only 5 years to produce an incredible, solid limestone on which corals can grow, instead of hundreds of years. In addition, CCell uses renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and wave energy to power coral reef cultivation systems.
The output voltage of all these renewable energy sources varies widely depending on environmental conditions, which is a major problem in the electrolysis process. The limestone structures in which coral polyps grow must grow at optimal rates, be free of impurities, and have a strong molecular structure. The electrolysis process has to be precise, too slow and nothing will grow; too fast and the limestone can’t sustain. Therefore, distribution networks must be able to adapt widely to extremely challenging environments and operate with a high degree of controllability and accuracy.
Considering the wide variation in input voltage specifications and the need to tightly regulate the potential difference (electric field) between electrodes within the “ideal range” of 1.2V to 4V, and drive a precisely calculated current through seawater. Therefore, Vicor recommends its factorial power architecture (FPA).
By decomposing the DC-DC function into two modules, the PRM regulator and the VTM current multiplier, the regulation and conversion of the distribution network can be optimized.
The PRM buck-boost regulator operates over a wide input voltage and uses a zero-voltage switching (ZVS) topology to achieve very high efficiency and power density. In addition, PRMs can be easily paralleled for higher power. The VTM is a fixed ratio (unregulated) resonant converter with very high current density. The PRM works closely with the VTM, with the PRM tightly regulating the voltage required by the reef, while the VTM handles the step-down switching and the current supplied to the electrodes.
“This complex and unique application has many continuously changing variables that require precise measurement and control to accelerate reef growth,” said Will Bateman, CEO of CCell. “With Vicor’s FPA, we now have a high-performance design. , believe it will greatly improve ecosystems and communities across the planet.”
CCell has always been committed to growing coral reefs around the world and is currently preparing a new 200-meter reef in Mexico.
On October 20, 2021, local time, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced new export controls aimed at restricting the sale of hacking tools to countries such as China and Russia. The subtext of the new US regulation is that “China is buying hacking tools to carry out cyber attacks”, but it turns a blind eye to the fact that the country is the world’s largest buyer, stockpiler and seller of cyber weapons. Cybersecurity experts believe the new U.S. measures are aimed at perpetuating its dominance in cyberattacks.
U.S. issues new export controls to limit sales of hacking tools to Russia and China
US media reported on October 21, 2021 that the US Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) under the US Department of Commerce issued a new export control regulation aimed at curbing exports to countries such as China and Russia Hacking. Previously, the rule had been shelved for years. The rule, which will take effect in 90 days, will prevent U.S. companies from selling any hacking software and equipment to China, Russia, Vietnam and other countries unless they have a license from the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security. The Commerce Department has previously imposed export controls on some tools that encrypt data. Under the new rules, U.S. officials will take a hierarchical approach to regulating “intrusion software” that helps users break into computer networks to monitor, steal data or damage systems.
The new rule prohibits the sale of hacking tools to governments and individuals in countries such as China, Russia and Yemen that have been identified as constituting so-called U.S. national security concerns, or countries facing a U.S. arms embargo, such as Venezuela, unless U.S. companies and their distributors obtain relevant license. The new rules also explicitly prohibit exports of a broad range of products to countries the U.S. deems sponsoring terrorism, such as Iran and North Korea, as well as embargoed countries such as Cuba.
But the new rule also opens up backdoors, such as those involving sales to U.S. allies, sales to private individuals, and in some cases tools to probe cyber defenses or consulting services to hacked organizations . Companies selling hacking tools to Israel, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Taiwan and the United Arab Emirates will require licenses, but U.S. companies are free to sell such software to those countries that use the tool for defense purposes, the Commerce Department said. s individual. The new rules also allow U.S. Internet companies to sell tools that detect software vulnerabilities and provide consulting services to help combat hacking in most unrestricted countries.
U.S. Department of Commerce website publishes new export control regulations
Global Cyber Weapons Market Grows Rapidly
According to the “2019-2027 Global Cyber Weapons Market Forecast” released by the American consulting service company inkwood in 2019, the global cyber weapons market was worth $45.12 billion in 2018 and is expected to generate approximately $65.13 billion in net income by 2027, with a compound annual growth rate. The rate was 4.17%. The global cyber weapons market is primarily driven by the following five factors: Rising demand for advanced cyber weapons, increasing defense spending, commitment of multiple agencies to invest in identifying zero-day vulnerabilities, expansion of traditional weapons manufacturing companies in cyber security business, cyber The number of questions increases.
The global cyber weapons market is divided into four geographic regions: North American cyber weapons market (US and Canada), European cyber weapons market (UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Rest of Europe), Asia Pacific cyber weapons market (China, India) , Japan, Korea, Australia, New Zealand and Rest of Asia Pacific), Rest of World (Latin America, Middle East and Africa).
Geographically, North America accounted for the largest revenue share of the market in 2018. In addition to the increase in defense spending in North America, the growing demand for cyber weapons is mainly due to the growing number of cyber attacks against the United States and Canada.
Rising internet penetration, increasing mobile data usage and the use of BYOD (bring your own device), cyber-attack cases in the Asia-Pacific region are increasing at a significant rate, making the Asia-Pacific region projected to be the fastest growing region for cyber weapons regional market. Countries such as India are seen as major markets with huge investments in defense.
Inkwood released “2019-2027 Global Cyber Weapons Market Forecast” in 2019
Vulnerabilities are a favorite in the cyber weapons market
The biggest change in the vulnerability market in recent years has been the influx of government funding, especially the huge US government investment. According to the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, the U.S. tops the vulnerability buying and selling list, followed by Israel, the U.K., Russia, India and Brazil. North Korea also has a piece of the market, along with some Middle Eastern intelligence agencies.
In fact, a 2013 report by the European Centre for Information Security and Policy stated that the NSA entered into a one-year contract with the French company VUPEN in September 2012 to subscribe to VUPEN as required by the US Freedom Act. Binary Analysis and Exploits Service. This allows the NSA to use software backdoors as well as zero-day exploits.
In 2015, the U.S. Bureau of Industry and Security unveiled a plan to put restrictions on hacking into a global arms trade treaty known as the Wassenaar Arrangement (WA). The Wassenaar Agreement, an export restriction agreement signed by 42 countries, restricts the export of ammunition and weapons such as tanks, missiles and firearms, as well as “dual-use goods and technologies” such as nuclear fuel rods. In a 2013 addendum, the agreement sought to regulate cyber-attack tools, known as “intrusion software.” But countries interpret the agreement and implement it in their laws differently. The Wassenaar Agreement excludes South Asia (including India, Indonesia, and China), most of South America (the only country in the agreement is Argentina), most of Africa (the only country in the agreement is South Africa), and West Asia ( including Israel, Iran, etc.). While Israel operates a similar licensing program for the export of hacking tools, the Israeli government allows cellphone spyware developer NSO to sell its cellphone surveillance software to many foreign governments. Dozens of countries, including India, Saudi Arabia, and Germany, purchase products from NSO to monitor “political enemies.”
Key Players in the Global Cyber Weapons Market
Kaspersky Lab, Boeing, McAfee (acquired by Intel Security), Cisco Systems, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, Airbus, AVAST Software, Raytheon, Mandiant (acquired by FireEye acquisition), BAE Systems, AVG Technologies, General Dynamics, and Symantec Corporation are some of the prominent players in the global cyber weapons market.
In recent years, private cybersecurity companies in the United States, Israel and other countries have sprung up, providing a large number of cyber weapons for state-level cyberattacks, giving birth to the new concept of Private Sector Offensive Actor (PSOA), reflecting the importance of cyberattacks. privatization trend. Israel-based NSO Group is the poster child for the privatization of cyber attacks. NSO has developed an app called Pegasus (Pegasus), which is sold to government law enforcement agencies in India, Argentina, Saudi Arabia and other countries. The University of Toronto found more than 100 cases of misuse of NSO technology.
Countries such as the United States and Israel have been the main sellers of hacking technology and cybersecurity products in the international market. According to comprehensive public information, as of October 18, 2021, there were approximately 59 private cybersecurity companies in the world participating in national-level offensive cyber operations (see the table below for some companies), of which US companies topped the list, with as many as 15 , Germany ranked second, with 5 companies on the list, and Israel and Russia ranked third, both with 4 companies. Most of these companies offer software implants and intrusions, including zero-day exploits, exploit frameworks, security bypass techniques, communication interception products, and more.
The United States has the world’s largest cyber ‘nuclear arsenal’
Cyber weapons are comparable to nuclear weapons, biological and chemical weapons, and may cause serious damage to the global infrastructure and the normal production and life of various countries. In 2015, Assange, the founder of WikiLeaks, revealed that the United States has developed as many as 2,000 kinds of cyber weapons, making it the world’s number one cyber weapon power. By building the world’s largest cyber arsenal comparable to nuclear weapons, the U.S. military and intelligence agencies have triggered a global cyber arms race and directly threatened global cyber security.
On May 12, 2017, the “WannaCry (Want to Cry)” ransomware broke out around the world, affecting more than 150 countries and regions, more than 100,000 organizations and institutions, and more than 300,000 computers, with a total loss of more than 50 billion yuan. An important reason why the “WannaCry” ransomware has caused serious losses is that the “Eternal Blue” cyber weapon developed by the National Security Agency has flowed into the civilian population and is used by hackers to make the ransomware “worm-like” spread. Microsoft President and Chief Legal Officer Smith publicly accused the National Security Agency of being unshirkable in the ransomware incident, and even compared the “theft of the cyber arsenal” to the theft of the Tomahawk missile.
The cyber weapon “Eternal Blue” developed by the National Security Agency is just one of many cyber weapons used by the “Equation” group under the National Security Agency. On April 14, 2017, the hacker group “Shadow Brokers” disclosed the extremely destructive network attack tools used by a large number of “Equation Group” including “Eternal Blue”, using these tools, A computer can be hacked as long as it is connected to the Internet, just like “WannaCry”, which can cause serious damage overnight.
“Equation” hacker group with NSA background
In 2019, U.S. media widely reported that U.S. cybersecurity firm Symantec found that Chinese intelligence agencies had obtained hacking tools from the U.S. National Security Agency, which they used in 2016 to attack U.S. allies and Europe. and private companies in Asia, the incident is the latest evidence that the United States has lost control of a key part of its cybersecurity arsenal. Ironically, based on the timing of the attack and clues in the computer code, Symantec researchers believe that the Chinese did not steal the code, but rather from an NSA attack on Chinese computers. Captured – like a gunslinger grabs an enemy’s rifle and starts fighting back.
In today’s mid-to-high-end cars, the modern lighting concept is more and more vividly interpreted. Both exterior and interior lighting are stylish and personal, with mood settings used in different parts of the car to control the color and brightness of light in “personal spaces” such as the driver’s footwell or the backlighting of the console. This type of automotive lighting uses a new type of light source, which not only enriches the consumer experience, but also meets the requirements of environmental protection and energy saving.
To realize advanced automotive lighting applications, there must be the support of corresponding semiconductor technologies. As a leading automotive lighting solution supplier, ON Semiconductor has been providing various general and dedicated high-efficiency device solutions for automotive lighting applications, in line with automotive applications. strict requirements to meet the rapidly developing market demand.
modern car lighting system
In recent years, luminousdiode(LEDs) are widely used in automotive lighting applications. Compared to incandescent lamps, LED-based lighting systems have a longer lifespan, lower power consumption, and greater design flexibility. These properties make it ideal for automotive interior lighting applications. In addition, as technology continues to advance, lower cost white LEDs with higher light output per watt are emerging, making LEDs more suitable for various lighting applications in the interior of the car.
LEDs are used in a wide variety of applications, such as in the headliner or in the lower trim of the doors, focusing light on specific areas inside and outside the car. LEDs can also be integrated near door handles, key holes, pedals, cup holders, or as turn signals on mirrors. The shape of the luminous indication can be very simple, or it can be very delicate to meet the precise lighting, provide convenience and beauty for people, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Various automotive lighting applications
Advanced Automotive Lighting Solutions from ON Semiconductor
ON Semiconductor has been providing standard products and custom devices for automotive lighting applications, including common light bulb driver solutions, as well as stepper drivers, LED drivers and high-intensity discharge lamp (HID, such as xenon) drivers.Dedicated in HID driveintegrated circuit(ASIC) market, headlamp leveling and rotary stepper drivers developed by ON Semiconductor have been widely used in the industry. In the automotive LED lighting market, ON Semiconductor provides a rich product portfolio for both interior and exterior applications. In the block diagram of the automotive lighting system shown in Figure 2, ON Semiconductor has various corresponding products. Several main solutions are described below.
Figure 2: Block Diagram of Automotive Lighting System
1. Headlamp stepper motor driver
Most of today’s cars are equipped with halogen lamps with high beam (HB) and low beam (LB) functions, which are the main function of headlamps. High beam halogen lamps have a typical power consumption of 55 W and a light output of about 1,000 lumens. HID technology has been around for more than ten years, with a power consumption of about 35 W and a light output of about 3,500 lumens, which has certain application advantages. Over time, HID lamps have incorporated high beam functionality into bi-xenon solutions. However, because the high brightness and glare of HID can affect the line of sight of approaching vehicles, some countries require automatic adjustment of the height of the low beam.
Another important aspect of automotive headlights is the Advanced Front Lighting System (AFS) beam rotation to optimize the visibility curve, while the Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB) function adjusts the beam according to real-time conditions. Stepper motors are the controller of choice for AFS and ADB.
ON Semiconductor’s AMIS-30623 single-chip bipolar stepper motor driver is suitable for headlamp leveling and rotation control. With an integrated position controller and local interconnect network (LIN) interface, the device enables the design of a dedicated mechatronic solution for remote connection to a LIN host, see Figure 3. It uses configurable parameters such as current, velocity, acceleration and deceleration to receive position commands over the bus and drive the motor coils to the desired position. The AMIS-30623 can also detect motor stalls.
The device embeds a dedicated finite state machine and a LIN instruction set tailored to the requirements of advanced headlamp systems, and integrates nosensorThe step damage detection function can not only improve reliability, but also reduce the number of components and board space, and reduce product cost.
Figure 3: Headlamp Leveling and Rotation Circuit Using AMIS-0623
2. LED headlamp system power ballast and dual LED driver
At present, most cars still use halogen headlamp solutions to provide high beam and low beam functions, but the future trend is to use xenon lamps and LED lamps. In particular, the application of LED lights, which can greatly reduce the power consumption of headlights, will increase rapidly, and 30% of cars will be equipped with multiple LED headlight functions within five years. LED lighting offers a sleeker option for “instant” lighting and allows brightness control from 0% to 100% power.
ON Semiconductor’s NCV78663 single-chip smart headlamp LED driver is a new device to be launched in 2011 that supports single-module control of high beam, low beam, daytime running lights, position lights, turn signals and fog lights . With integrated digital dimming, programmable serial peripheral interface (SPI) settings, and built-in diagnostics, the NCV78663 provides an integrated and comprehensive energy-efficient solution for headlamp control.
Figure 4: NCV78663 Single-Chip Smart Headlamp LED Driver
The NCV78663 uses a buck/boost topology to achieve LED current regulation, constant current sharing, high-efficiency integrated buck switching (high-side), and current up to 2 A using only a few external components; its extended diagnostic capabilities include: Open circuit or failing driver, short circuit, over current protection and single LED failure, etc. In addition, the device features thermal protection, system customization via SPI interface and/or OTP settings, multiple system configurations with one device, better EMC performance without additional filtering,BatteryLow EMC, LED string low EMC and other characteristics. Using the NCV78663 reduces the number of external components, and the total energy efficiency is better than 90%. An evaluation board for this device is available, see Figure 5.
Figure 5: NCV78663 Evaluation Board
3. Dedicated for full function of HID headlampsintegrated circuit
The advent of HID lamps improved the performance of headlamp systems. Compared to traditional halogen lamps, HIDs have improved color rendering, low power consumption, longer life and higher light output. To support advanced functions, HID headlamps require high-efficiency ballasts and complex control circuits.
ON Semiconductor HID lamp control system is an 8-bitmicrocontrolleror a hybrid analog/digital solution with a dedicated state machine, see Figure 6.The device integrates a DC/DC controller, as well as rich diagnostic functions (overvoltage, undervoltage, temperaturesensorlife counter), various communication interfaces (LIN, SPI), support 35 W (D1/D2/D3/D4) and 25 W (D5) lamps.
Figure 6: Dedicated to full function of HID headlampsintegrated circuit
4. Linear current stabilization and controller for automotive LED combined taillights
At present, automotive combination taillights (RCL) are increasingly using LED light body groups, which not only have beautiful appearance and high light efficiency, but also help the rear car to clearly see the driving state of the preceding car.
ON Semiconductor’s NCV7680 is a linear current regulator and controller that can power combination taillights from a single chip, providing better performance and higher energy efficiency in a smaller footprint than solutions on the market.The device includes 8 linear programmable constant current sources for current regulation and control of automotive solid-state combination tail lamps (RCL), supporting up to 75 mA per channel of light emissiondiode(LED) drive current.
The NCV7680 integrates numerous functions and supports two brightness levels, one for parking and the other for tail lighting. Optional pulse width modulation (PWM) control is also available if desired. The system designer only needs to use an external resistor to set the output current (overall set point). In addition, for designs requiring high currents, optional external ballast field effect transistors (FETs) can be used for power distribution according to the high currents required by the design. The delayed power limit reduces the drive current in overvoltage conditions. This is important for low current applications without external FETs.
Typical applications for this device include combination tail lights, daytime running lights (DRL), fog lights, center high mounted brake light (CHMSL) arrays, turn signals and other external modulation applications, liquid crystal Display (LCD) backlighting, lighting modules, and more. Compared with discrete solutions, the device can better match the LED output, open-drain output function of open LED string diagnosis, easy to find faults.
Figure 7: Application circuit with external FET transistor ballast
ON Semiconductor has been leveraging its advanced automotive process technology to provide a variety of standard products and custom devices for automotive lighting applications. In addition to some of the solutions introduced above, there are also industry-leading products and solutions such as LED drivers using linear and switching power supplies (SMPS), LED current regulators, and central high-position brake light constant current regulators.
As with various automotive applications using advanced automotive process technologies, all of theseintegrated circuitThey all meet the requirements of automobile reliability and temperature and environmental protection requirements, and can meet people’s increasingly high requirements for interior lighting control, headlights, rear combination lights, fog lights, position lights, especially new light sources, etc. , allowing drivers to fully experience the comfort and fun brought by lighting.
“The SPC (Short PWM Code) protocol is an enhanced version based on the SENT (Single Edge Nibble Tranmission) protocol. It realizes data transmission through pulses between the falling edges of two adjacent cycles. Compared with analog output and PWM output, it has a good EMC characteristics, with high transmission speed, strong reliability and anti-interference ability.
The SPC (Short PWM Code) protocol is an enhanced version based on the SENT (Single Edge Nibble Tranmission) protocol. It realizes data transmission through pulses between the falling edges of two adjacent cycles. Compared with analog output and PWM output, it has a good EMC characteristics, with high transmission speed, strong reliability and anti-interference ability. This protocol is widely used for accurate rotational angle measurement and position detection, automotive applications including pedal, accelerator or gear lever position detection, suspension control or direct torque detection of electric power steering systems, etc.
The SPC protocol performs data transmission in the form of single-wire half-duplex transmission, and can control up to 4 sensors at the same time. Different from SENT, SPC adds a new trigger field, which can represent three modes: synchronization mode, ID selection and range selection. The value of each field of SPC represents a four-bit value according to the time between two falling edges. The result obtained by dividing the falling edge time by a fixed value minus 12 is the value represented, and this fixed value becomes the unit. time (UT).
SPC frame format introduction
Figure 1 SPC frame format
・Trigger field (master Trigger Pulse): sent by the host, the length is different according to the mode. ・Sync frame: sent by the slave, indicating that the slave starts to collect data. ・Status field (status Nibble): Indicates the current status of the slave. When the mode of the trigger field is ID selection or range selection, it also indicates the ID or current range value of the slave. ・Data Nibble: Indicates the data collected by the slave. According to the settings of the slave, the number of data fields can vary from 3 to 6. Its data can include Hall value and temperature value. ・Check field (CRC Nibble): Provide a check value to check whether the frame is correct.
1. Decoding example
Simulate the SPC communication protocol and decode the data, as shown in Figure 2 below:
Figure 2 SPC decoding configuration parameters
As shown in the figure above, configure the parameters required for SPC decoding, where the time slice width refers to the unit time set by the host. According to the nature of the data fields of the frame, set the number of data fields, as shown in the following figure:
Figure 3 Meaning of the number of data fields
As shown in the figure above, when the number of data fields is 3 or 4, it means that the data only has Hall values. With a number of 5 or 6, the sensor measures and transmits the temperature value in addition to the Hall value.
Figure 4 SPC decoding Figure 5 SPC decoding
As shown in the figure above, this frame indicates that the trigger field is range selection, and the selected range is 100mT, and the status field indicates that the current state of the sensor is Normal and the current magnetic flux range is 200mT.
The ZDS4054 Plus oscilloscope now supports SPC protocol decoding, which is more convenient to use. Go to the official website to upgrade the firmware and try it out. Click to read the original text at the bottom to jump to the official website link.