There are representative companies in every era and every industry. Entrepreneurship is to use new technology and new thinking to do a new business all over again.
In 2006, you wanted to buy a house in Shanghai and found a second-hand real estate agency. The leading company at that time was Zhongyuan. But 2016 has become a chain home, what is the difference between them?
First, in terms of service details, Zhongyuan serves the post-50s and post-60s. They have experienced the Cultural Revolution and are not very particular about service. Lianjia serves the post-80s and post-90s. When they were born, they had good shopping malls and good restaurants, and they were picky about service.
Second, the Central Plains requires that each industry generation is not allowed to make any more difference, and takes you to see 200 houses with hard work. However, Lianjia has made efforts in intelligence. There is a SaaS, which can search for 50 houses from 200 houses according to your search dimension. These houses for sale have been made into short videos. You can watch short videos in the air-conditioning at home For the video, you can basically select 15 suites from it, and then go out to watch it, it will be efficient.
Third, Zhongyuan respects industry generation, and everyone has their own personality. Lianjia doesn’t have to have personality anymore, it has processes and steps. In the past, the Central Plains was the growth of domestic demand, and it took 15 years to open 500 stores in Shenzhen. Now Lianjia will use financial means to open 500 households in Shenzhen for 3 years.
If you create a new era company, you must grasp two things: First, grasp the “strong structural elements” at the bottom of doing business. Second, seize the “strong environmental elements” of technology and society at that time.
1. Observe the ongoing business change from three levels:
The top layer is consumption changes, the middle layer is experience and services, and the bottom layer is organization and infrastructure. In other words, the upper layer is the change of “people”, the middle layer is the change of “goods” and “field”, and the bottom layer is the change of enterprise management resources and capabilities. Between them from the bottom up, one layer supports one layer.
At the top level, there are two major driving forces for consumption changes
Let’s talk about consumer drivers first. Those born in the 70s should be full, those born in the 80s should eat well, and those born in the 90s should have fun. As consumers’ disposable income increases, they begin to pursue fun eating. In the past, the traditional Cha-Cha Melon Seeds, Yinlu Eight-Treasure Porridge, and Missing You All were good products of conscientious enterprises. However, with the upgrading of consumption, “interesting” gave birth to new brands such as Three Squirrels.
From the perspective of technology driving, it is to digitize consumers, digitize logistics, digitize retail terminals, and put every link in the value chain on the cloud for analysis, so as to quickly respond to consumer needs. Responsive and satisfied. From pure offline physical store consumption to online shopping in the PC era, to mobile Internet shopping, there will be new ways of reaching, communicating and trading such as intelligent voice assistants in the future.
The middle layer, looking at changes from a demand-side perspective and a supply-side perspective
From the perspective of the (consumer) demand side, it is called “experience”. Commodity is the absolute first experience, it “satisfies consumer demand”; the second experience is “business format”, that is, “the way to meet demand”. Consumers who want to buy the same product can use convenience stores, hypermarkets, traffic e-commerce, content e-commerce, O2O, C2M, C2B, F2F and other formats, each format has a combination of multiple contents and multiple scenarios, so that consumers can get Ideal multi-scene experience value.
From the perspective of the supply side (brand side), it is called “channel service”. The first service content on the channel is to ensure that the product information is clear and the logistics is stable and available. Next, in response to the evolution of consumers’ purchasing habits such as time and space, various traditional offline channel types have been developed. For example, after the advent of the mobile Internet, various online terminal channel types have been developed.
The bottom layer, the reconstruction of management resources and capabilities
There has been a big change in the way businesses operate when it comes to managing “multiple parallel” consumer touchpoints. Enterprises need to make quick decisions and responses to consumer needs, and can efficiently seize business opportunities, acquire users, satisfy users, retain and operate users. At the same time, enterprises also need to arm themselves with digital infrastructure, and use mobile terminals + 5G connection + cloud computing + data + SaaS system to integrate commodity flow, inventory flow, order flow, membership flow, etc., to improve the operational efficiency of enterprises .
Since the concept of new retail was proposed to the present, no benchmarking company has appeared yet. In fact, some innovative companies have only done a little bit. We use these three-level frameworks to analyze what Starbucks and Luckin Coffee have done.
Starbucks believes that consumers need a third space in addition to home and office to rest and socialize. And Ruixing Coffee believes that any place can become the third space of consumers. Because of the mobile phone, it will appear in many different scenarios.
Based on such different perceptions, Starbucks stores are mainly experience stores, while Luckin has made 4 different store models. Starbucks’ main way to meet consumer demand is to buy in stores; in addition to offline purchases, Luckin can also choose to pick up or deliver after ordering online.
Organization and infrastructure. Starbucks’ strategic alliance with Ele.me and Hema has expanded its contact points with consumers. These contact points, such as Taobao, Alipay, Hema, and Ele.me, can help Starbucks to drain traffic online and bring consumers what they want to drink. Coffee delivery to any scene. In terms of organization and infrastructure, Starbucks has stepped out of its original scope and entered the broader Ali new retail ecosystem. At this stage, Ruixing still develops in its own relatively independent and closed system, rather than in an ecosystem.
When Victor wrote the book “Big Data”, he mentioned that with the advent of the mobile Internet era, the world will be completely changed by four technologies in our business, and the participation and interactive 3.0 business will appear. These technologies include: mobile terminals, social media, big data, cloud computing.
But if blockchain technology emerges, it will allow human beings to enter the encrypted economy and smart economy from the digital economy, which will be a brand new subversion.
2. How will the blockchain reconstruct the “commercial symbiosis”?
The study of business models is mostly carried out from the perspective of studying the “transaction subject”, that is, the study of focal enterprises (core enterprises). For example, Ctrip is an OTA platform company that sells travel packages, air tickets and hotels. It creates value for users in a business ecosystem, and users pay it. But if it doesn’t create value for the airline, and the airline doesn’t let him sell air tickets, the business cannot be done.
In essence, core companies form a “department” in the business ecosystem, which Westerners call a “commercial symbiosis”. Therefore, in addition to seeing whether the blockchain adds value to core enterprises, it also depends on whether the blockchain adds value to the entire “commercial symbiosis”, creating higher structural efficiency and reconstructing the business structure.
For a core enterprise, the field that creates value for customers is called the customer ecosystem; the field that creates value for partners is called the partner ecosystem. A business can open its doors to do business because it has one or more “businesses”. For example, Meituan’s earliest business was group buying, but Meituan has been working hard to gain insight into other business opportunities. In 2013, Meituan entered the “Daojia” business, that is, the takeaway business, so it found a larger market value area. a customer ecosystem.
We also need to think about whether there will be new business opportunities with the emergence of blockchain, that is, to find a new business and a new value zone, will it be possible to make breakthroughs in business?
The business symbiosis is composed of all transaction stakeholders (stakeholders) in the “office”, each of which is a role.
For example, the banking symbiosis is composed of many business roles, and the business activities between roles are linked in chronological order, which is the logic and path of creating value. The emergence of new technologies is often accompanied by the automation of business activities by IT. The value created by the original business role is replaced by IT, the original transaction link disappears, or a new role using new IT technology appears, and a new transaction link appears, making the business symbiosis more efficient and stable.
In the new business symbiosis driven by the blockchain, the role of the best aggregation can be reduced. All characters can earn more and profit more than before, and together make this new symbiote bigger.
The essence of the design of the business model is that the “core enterprise” finds a business with high growth potential, and configures the most suitable set of roles and business activities for this business. Character Aggregation and Activation Efficacy.
In the application of blockchain technology in business, can we find a new way for the roles to more effectively aggregate in the “cooperation mode” and “incentive mode”, and generate higher efficiency in the partner ecosystem and the user ecosystem? viscosity?
3. Development of blockchain and token model
The basic consensus of everyone is: Blockchain 1.0 is Bitcoin, and Blockchain 2.0 is Ethereum. Let’s not talk about 3.0 first, we will talk about 1.0 and 2.0.
What is Bitcoin itself? It is a time chain written with four to five layers of software. A batch of accounting data, which may be structured data or unstructured data, is packaged into a digital package every ten minutes. Then, through the lottery, a variety of servers are drawn to help it keep accounts. After recording, several people are right, no problem, they will give him a reward. The reward is a virtual form of currency, which is called mining.
Therefore, the currency issued in version 1.0 is a pure digital currency, which cannot be tampered with. But the 2.0 Ethereum has a new type of thing called smart contract. I personally think that from now on, token (pass) and (coin) digital currency will be separated.
For example, everyone knows what I’m talking about. If the time is pushed back two or a hundred years, the Qing Dynasty issued 3,000 coupons because of the flood disaster in the south of the Yangtze River. Then one year later, this ticket will give six taels of silver as a reward. This example is on our certificate and currency, the ticket is the token, and the silver is the coin is the currency.
What is token? is a programmable digital ticket. All business terms, including the value of the rewarded coins, can be written on the programming of this token. So token is a ticket that can be circulated on the digital asset highway. As for the currency, it is the real value in the value system that the coupons will be exchanged for in the future.
I will use an example to explain to you, maybe you will understand clearly.
Suppose I am a marketing expert, and Procter & Gamble commissioned me to do a survey and find 10,000 people to write a questionnaire. How to do it with today’s method? Make an app first, then find a lot of people to sign up on it, tell everyone to fill out the questionnaire, and you will be paid in the future. Soon 150,000 people registered on this app, so I wrote a smart contract, compiled all the questionnaires to be sent in this smart contract, and also compiled a clause, as long as you can answer well, I will review After you pass it, you can get about one or two digital currencies. No matter who owns the digital currency, it is the digital currency I bought in the background.
When you help me send this questionnaire, the AI system behind me can automatically find the most suitable 10,000 people by marking and send this questionnaire to him. These respondents saw it. When he completed the automatic review in the background, my smart contract automatically replied to tell everyone that you passed, and then automatically gave you a coin address. You can have a password to go to this place to get these certificate.
What’s the beautiful thing in this? In the past, I had to ask the bank to pay 10,000 people when I paid, but now I don’t need it, and the smart contract automatically responds. So this smart contract is a token to me. In the end, all those who do the questionnaire get the coin, which is this coin.
However, this is not available in the Bitcoin version 1.0 of the blockchain. It is available in Ethereum. However, the processing speed of Ethereum is relatively slow at present. There should be other blockchains soon. The emergence of a layered architecture, with faster processing, allows this encoded ticket to be used more flexibly.
Therefore, on the chain of the asset highway, token is equivalent to a circulating currency attribute, it is not just an enhanced version of points.
In fact, a token in the narrow sense means that the terms are not written into the programming. In this case, a token is a coin. When a token becomes a bill, and more terms are written on the token, its essence is a smart contract, it has more application space than coin and this currency. But it cannot be without coins, because coins are the unit of value calculation.
The “chain” of the blockchain is a time chain that packages everyone’s account (fact data) into an immutable block throughout the time. “Certificate” is an Electronic bill that can be encoded, on which all transaction terms are written. “Coin” is digital currency.
4. The Era of Business 4.0
We do not see blockchain as a single technology. We think of five or six technology packages as a new set of technologies. This includes sensors, artificial intelligence transformed from big data, the bottom layer of blockchain, nanotechnology, and biochips, all of which have been packaged to create a new business, commonly known as the business 4.0 era.
With any new technology, there are some previous batches made in heaven. What do so many 4.0 technologies support first in the 4.0 business?
For example: a film company made a movie, and this thing is actually a digital asset. This digital asset is on the chain. After the timestamp is stamped, no one can tamper with it, and there is a smart contract in it. This one is on the chain, and it can also be listed on the currency. The currency does not have to be issued by itself. You can also find a fair third party to buy the currency.
If you go to Youku, Tudou or iQiyi for distribution, and you want to watch a movie, you will buy five digital currencies of a certain kind. Go to Youku and Tudou to buy it, watch it after you buy it, recommend it to others after reading it, and recommend it to others, and it costs another five coins to buy it. The smart contract in this digital asset will automatically allocate these five coins. Among them, one is for Youku and Tudou; two are for film companies, and two are for recommenders.
A blockchain project based on digital assets like this is less like a pseudo-demand, because it can be quickly applied. But there are indeed many projects that are currently difficult to get real applications.
For example, two years ago, a project leader said that after digitizing a painting of Zhang Hai, he divided it into 200 copies, and the 200 copies could be invested by 200 people, and it became decentralized. Invest, not one person owning two hundred copies. I think this logic is absolutely plausible. That is, in the virtual world, everyone can invest in a decentralized way.
But what I want to ask is, can such a project be decentralized? Who is going to collect such a painting? Should a professional organization put this painting in a place with air conditioning and anti-theft, but the damage is in this place. What if a mouse eats the painting?
Our transactions in the virtual world all have blockchains, timestamps, and smart contracts. This is no problem. But in real assets, the quality of the real assets cannot be guaranteed.
As long as this kind of thing is related to the quality of physical assets, the blockchain is divided into two. Transactions in the blockchain are very deterministic, but the quality in the entity is difficult to determine because it cannot be digitized. I have always thought that it is difficult to solve this part of physical assets on the chain, and I dare not say that it is a pseudo-demand. But it feels weird and not very reliable.
For a more realistic example, the transaction of a house can be carried out in installments using a smart contract, but when a buyer really takes the key and opens it and finds that the quality inside is not as good as expected, it is not a blockchain things that can be solved. In fact, there are some physical assets that are very difficult to define digitally.
Looking at the current many blockchain white papers, what can be done? Either it is a digital asset such as a movie, or it is a research digital asset, or it is an entertainment ecosystem such as insurance and advertising intermediaries. I think it is more suitable for the application of original content on the chain.
Jianshu is a UGC platform and also has a web version. In the earliest days, it encouraged all people to write manuscripts through the mobile Internet. There are romance novels, science fiction novels, and later other categories. When there are tens of thousands of articles, the good and the bad will be mixed.
Through the activity in the group, Jianshu found that many people worked hard and had the ability to appreciate. The first community was created by mobilizing the power of the masses, called the editor-in-chief group. To help them review which manuscripts are good and which are not good, is to do the recommended work. Like I said, a self-organization driven by a person in charge will do very well.
Will the original content be tampered with? In fact, a piece of content can be divided into a non-tamperable version, a co-creation version, or an invitation-to-create version. This is a digital asset, and it is actually very easy to get on the chain. On the chain and the incentive system for issuing coins, whether it is issued by yourself or not, a very good mechanism can be formed.
5. The impact of blockchain on industry, business and organizations
When the mobile Internet came, we talked about something called fan economy and community business. It is to let users generate content through UGC, and at the same time help everyone, and then generate new products.
However, the result of the three-year experiment is that this society does not have much collective wisdom, that is, there are not too many communities that can gather together for a long time and become high-quality collective wisdom. This is the spontaneous collective wisdom. Sometimes, without the guidance of the master, it is difficult to produce efficacy. This is what we have seen in the past three years.
In fact, in the era of mobile Internet, not much has been achieved. In the blockchain, we must pay attention to whether it can really arouse a high degree of participation and investment of most people, which will be generated after collective operation. Higher potency, and each individual gets assigned.
Recently I saw a company that does cross-border e-commerce insurance. The insurance of cross-border e-commerce can be divided into products, logistics, customs clearance, credit, and after-sales.
For example, what is logistics? Guaranteed logistics means that in the whole process of logistics and distribution, there may be problems such as damage, loss of packages, and delays. It will have a compensation policy of “must arrive within 15 days, if it fails to arrive or is delayed, it will be compensated”. In this claim, the logistics company comes to insure. It is conceivable that in the process of insuring a logistics company, for example, sending chickpeas from South America to Shanghai, China, there may be three warehouses, three flights, and two trunk logistics in the middle.
Is there a smart contract for automatic claims settlement based on blockchain technology? Through the understanding of big data, we can know which link is delayed. We call this application the industrial blockchain. In this industrial blockchain, every link is actually willing to join the industrial blockchain.
Because, after it is encrypted with the timestamp, it can be very clear which link is often wrong. These so-called high-quality nodes that do not make mistakes will be recognized by the society, and if they issue tokens behind them, they can also be motivated by tokens.
In this smart contract, in the process of writing, in the entire industrial blockchain, if there are many situations in each link, it will automatically deduct the money as a penalty. This kind of execution is very easy to execute. of. In the end, through big data and artificial intelligence, he will optimize those bad intermediate links (intermediate warehousing, or trunk logistics or airlines), leaving better things.
The insurance industry is a very large industry. Let me take this example to see the reconstruction of the industry by the blockchain, which is also the part of the industrial blockchain that can create value. So, someone asked, is it possible for blockchain to subvert some centralized sharing platforms, such as Uber and Airbnb?
Uber and Airbnb use apps on the mobile Internet as a kind of marketplace called Level 4, allowing everyone to book rooms and cars. With the blockchain, many such intermediaries can actually create a car booking system that combines all parties on it. It may smash huge platforms like Uber and Airbnb into smaller platforms. But there is still a small centralized operation between platforms.
However, at the end of all business, brand operation is still very important. Because brand operation represents a quality, this cannot be solved by technology, but by the details of execution and service.
Furthermore, we will think, will the self-organization brought by the blockchain subvert the shareholding system that has existed for hundreds of years?
In fact, in the process of centralization, especially transaction-based products, such as selling Coca-Cola or instant noodles, still have a certain scale effect and exist value. However, if it is a value-based service, especially a customized and personalized service, there may be very fragmented self-organization in the future, and you can reallocate economic resources without going through a joint-stock company.
There are two prerequisites for the operation of self-organization: first, the invisible organizer is helping everyone to set the rules of the game; the second is to break up the large organization into more small V, and there must be a logic of cooperation between them.
I think the application of blockchain must be thought of as two parts. For the whole society, or for various organizations, it can open source and save money.
What is open source, that is, in a company organization or a business symbiosis, it can be bound by more input from all people, expand more participation, and create more sales and circulation. However, in many organizations, it can help us reduce its friction costs and transaction costs. Therefore, it is a completely standard product, and the supply is unlimited. It does not necessarily need a blockchain. It can do other cost-reducing applications on the blockchain.
The design of the blockchain is actually similar to the design of the mobile Internet. It must be based on the scenario, to think about how the blockchain can help him, either to increase sales or reduce its cost.