Xiao Xinguang: Five characteristics of the development of the network security field during the “14th Five-Year Plan”

This year is the first year of the “14th Five-Year Plan”. During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, the field of cybersecurity faces three major historical tasks: systematically reshape the national defense and national security capabilities of cyberspace; comprehensively improve the security protection level of critical information infrastructure, Effectively guarantee the digital transformation of the national economic system; fully meet the security needs of citizens’ personal information and privacy.

From the specific development trend, there will be five characteristics:

1. Simultaneous incremental construction and supplementary courses for existing capacity. Simultaneous planning, construction and operation of security protection in new and incremental scenarios of informatization, and comprehensive improvement of the security governance capabilities of exposed surfaces, vulnerabilities, patches, configurations, identity accounts and other aspects of existing systems.

2. Threat confrontation drives the upgrade of protection capabilities. On the basis of the original basic actions such as capturing response and attacking, testing and defending, comprehensively perceives and tracks cyber threat actors and threat activities, and completes the formalized operation of threat technical and tactical intelligence based on the threat framework, and drives the function of product defense capabilities. Upgrade, lead the evolution of the defense indicator system, and promote the implementation of full life cycle security operations.

3. The security defense fulcrum returns to the system security side. With the extensive encryption and cloudification of assets and the improvement of attackers’ ability to penetrate defenses, the role of traditional gateway border security has been significantly weakened, and the role of system security has become prominent. Whether it is traditional desktop endpoints, dedicated workstations, server hosts, cloud and virtualized nodes, containers, or new BYOD and IoT scenarios, it is necessary to build defense capabilities at the bottom and achieve unified management and operation.

Fourth, safety management requires deepening integration. The integration of password security and confidentiality and security is accelerating in an all-round way.

5. Cybersecurity enterprises realize their own digital transformation. Security product support capabilities and service forms and models are fully reconstructed.

Grasping major development opportunities and following the development trend will have a profound impact on the network security industry, especially the strengthening of the requirements for critical information infrastructure security protection, which will bring unprecedented industrial opportunities. The promulgation and implementation of the “Regulations on the Security Protection of Critical Information Infrastructure” (hereinafter referred to as the “Regulations”) has created systematic, in-depth and rigid security requirements from the perspective of policies and regulations, and is an important measure for the demand-side reform of network security. The Politburo meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held on December 11, 2020 proposed: “We must rein in supply-side structural reforms while focusing on demand-side reforms.” Construction and industrial development are critical.

The “Regulations” make the issue of critical information infrastructure security no longer just a matter of security protection for the construction and operation organizations themselves. It is based on the security of critical information infrastructure and national security, social security, government and enterprise security, and human security. From these four The dimensions related to each level form the demand orientation and guidance. From the perspective of network security demand-side reform, there are both incremental and structural demands. It is an overall and multi-dimensional demand change, which will further stimulate the scale and vitality of the network security market.

In the “Regulations”, “establish and improve the network security monitoring and early warning system of key information infrastructure in this industry and this field, keep abreast of the operation status and security situation of key information infrastructure in this industry and this field, and give early warning and notification of network security threats and hidden dangers”. Critical information infrastructure conducts network security inspections and risk assessments at least once a year.” “The national cybersecurity and informatization department coordinates and coordinates relevant departments to establish a network security information sharing mechanism, and promptly summarizes, studies, shares, and publishes information on cybersecurity threats, vulnerabilities, and incidents, and promotes A series of detailed items such as “Network Security Information Sharing among Relevant Departments, Protection Work Departments, Operators, and Network Security Service Organizations” will further release the security situation of industries and fields and the construction needs of notification and early warning platform projects. Work departments, operators and other relevant parties have put forward higher requirements for systematic security protection capacity building, normalized security monitoring and detection, and analysis and evaluation from the perspective of risk consequences, which require relevant parties to respond quickly, in-depth analysis, and high-level security to threat events. The production and rule distribution of valuable threat intelligence, operators have higher requirements for the detection, analysis, hunting, and traceability of threat intelligence consumption. At the same time, this is also a higher requirement for security service agencies to provide solutions and innovative products.

From the perspective of supply-side reform, network security service agencies should have corresponding capabilities. On the one hand, they should be able to assist operators to sort out business assets, internal and external environments, and assess asset value from the perspective of cyber attack confrontation, and recognize threats by traversing the technical framework. Behavior, based on actual bearable consequences analysis and assessment of security capacity building needs, as a starting point for security planning and continuous improvement; on the other hand, it can provide unified security management and response for endpoints, deceptive defense, traffic monitoring and response, and file dynamic sandbox analysis , emergency response and threat hunting tools, as well as excellent product solutions such as security monitoring and analysis, threat hunting, and security protection in important and sensitive periods, to form effective defense coverage of all scenarios, credible scenario construction capabilities, and in-depth threat monitoring and detection capabilities. And through in-depth threat analysis and deceptive defense capability supply, customers are driven to complete the intelligent security operation transformation from threat intelligence consumption to autonomous security capability production, so as to achieve the goal of continuous optimization and improvement of comprehensive security protection capabilities.

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Differential Overvoltage Protection Circuit of Current Sense Amplifier

Harsh environments are a reality that many electrical systems in motor control or solenoid valve control applications must face. The electronics that control the motors and solenoid valves require high currents and voltages very close to the physical movement of the end application. In addition to being in close proximity, these systems are often subject to maintenance (eg, hiring a mechanic to change the controller board for the dishwasher solenoid), which leaves open the possibility of unintentional wiring errors. Proximity to high currents and voltages, coupled with the possibility of improper wiring, requires designs to consider overvoltage protection.

Harsh environments are a reality that many electrical systems in motor control or solenoid valve control applications must face. The electronics that control the motors and solenoid valves require high currents and voltages very close to the physical movement of the end application. In addition to being in close proximity, these systems are often subject to maintenance (eg, hiring a mechanic to change the controller board for the dishwasher solenoid), which leaves open the possibility of unintentional wiring errors. Proximity to high currents and voltages, coupled with the possibility of improper wiring, requires designs to consider overvoltage protection.

To build efficient and safe systems, precision current sense amplifiers are used to monitor the current in these applications. Precision amplifier circuit designs need to be protected from overvoltage effects, but this protection circuit may affect the accuracy of the amplifier. Properly designing, analyzing, and verifying a circuit can strike a balance between protection and accuracy. This article discusses two common protection circuits and how their implementation affects the accuracy of current sense amplifiers.

Current Sense Amplifier

Most current-sense amplifiers can handle high common-mode voltages (CMV), but cannot handle high differential input voltages. In some applications, there are situations where the differential input voltage of the shunt exceeds the maximum voltage rating of the amplifier. This is common in industrial and automotive solenoid valve control applications (Figure 1), where a short circuit can cause a failure, exposing the current-sense amplifier to a high differential input voltage that can reach the same potential as the battery. This differential overvoltage can damage the amplifier, especially without protection circuitry.


Figure 1. High-Side Current Sensing in a Solenoid Control Application

Overvoltage Protection Circuit

Figure 2 shows the basic connections for overvoltage protection of a current sense amplifier. When the differential input voltage exceeds the specified amplifier’s maximum rating, the amplifier may pull current into the internal protection diodes. If a large differential voltage signal exists between the input pins, the additional series resistors R1 and R2 prevent large currents from flowing into the internal protection diodes.


Figure 2. Basic Overvoltage Protection Circuit

The maximum voltage rating and maximum input current that the protection circuit can withstand varies from device to device. A general rule of thumb is that the current through the internal differential protection diodes should be limited to 3 mA, unless the data sheet states that a larger current value is acceptable. Substitute this value into the following equations to calculate the values ​​of R1 and R2:


where: VIN_MAXis the expected maximum differential voltage. VRATED_MAXis the maximum rated voltage (0.7 V). R is the total series resistance (R1 + R2).

For example, assuming that the maximum transient input voltage is expected to be 10 V, the equation is:

If R = 3.1 kΩ, then according to Equation 1, R1 and R2 = 1.55 kΩ. These values ​​of R1 and R2 are very large, and given the input impedance of a particular amplifier, R1 and R2 can contribute large errors to the overall system performance.

One way to lower R1 and R2 is to add higher current capability external protection diodes at the input pins, as shown in Figure 3.


Figure 3. Overvoltage Protection Circuit with External Input Differential Protection Diodes

For example, when using the Digi-Key B0520LW-7-F Schottky diode, which can handle up to 500 mA forward current, the R-value is reduced to 20 Ω.

System performance tradeoffs

Adding series resistors to the amplifier inputs may degrade certain performance parameters. In some amplifiers, R1 and R2 are in series with internal precision resistors. In other amplifiers, the offset current is combined with the resistance to create the offset voltage. Parameters more likely to be affected are gain error, common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), and offset voltage.

To investigate the potential effect of series resistance, two current-sense amplifiers were measured with protection resistors configured at their input pins. The test setup to evaluate gain error, CMRR, and offset voltage is shown in Figure 4. The setup uses an Agilent E3631A power supply to provide a single 5 V supply to the device, a Yokogawa GS200 precision DC source to generate the differential input voltage signal, a HAMEG HMP4030 to set the CMV, and an Agilent 3458A precision multimeter to measure the output voltage of the current sense amplifier.


Figure 4. Test Setup to Evaluate Gain Error, CMRR, and Offset Voltage

The AD8210 and AD8418 were evaluated to measure the effect of additional series resistance on device gain error, CMRR, and offset voltage parameters.

gain error

When series resistors are placed in series with the amplifier inputs, they form a resistive divider with the amplifier’s differential input impedance. This resistor divider introduces an attenuation that appears in the circuit as additional gain error. The lower the differential input impedance of the amplifier, the greater this additional gain error.

Table 1 shows the AD8210’s calculated additional gain error and actual gain error. The AD8418 was tested with and without protection circuitry. Table 2 shows the calculated additional gain error and the actual gain error for this amplifier.

Table 1: AD8210 Gain Error

Table 2: AD8418 Gain Error

The measured result is that the AD8418 gain error is offset by 0.013%, while the AD8210 is offset by 0.497%. The input impedances of the AD8418 and AD8210 are 150 kΩ and 2 kΩ, respectively, so the error introduced by the AD8418 will be much less than the AD8210.

Common Mode Rejection Ratio

Since current sense amplifiers are often exposed to high CMV environments, CMRR is one of the most important specifications. CMRR measures the ability of a device to suppress high CMV and achieve better accuracy and performance. That is, when equal voltages are applied to the two inputs of the amplifier, the measured output voltage changes. CMRR is defined as the ratio of differential gain to common mode gain, usually expressed in dB. Calculate the CMRR values ​​for both amplifiers using the following equation:

of which: ADMis the differential gain of the AD8210 and AD8418 (ADM = 20). ACMis the common mode gain ΔVOUT/ΔVCM.

When a series resistor is in series with the amplifier input, the mismatch in the series resistor adds to the mismatch in the internal resistor, which affects the CMRR. The CMRR measurements of the current sense amplifiers AD8210 and AD8418 are shown in Table 3 and Table 4, respectively.

Table 3. AD8210 CMRR Performance (Gain of 20)

Table 4. AD8418 CMRR Performance (Gain of 20)

The results show that the effect of the additional external series resistor is a reduction in the CMRR of the AD8418 and a relatively small effect on the CMRR of the AD8210. The AD8418 becomes 89 dB and the AD8210 remains almost the same (94 dB). For fixed gain devices, the common-mode impedance of the AD8418 and AD8210 is relatively high, 750 kΩ and 5 MΩ, respectively.

offset voltage

When bias current flows through an external resistor, an error voltage is created in series with the device’s inherent offset voltage. To account for this additional offset voltage error, the input offset current (IOSthe difference between the two input bias currents) multiplied by the external impedance at the input pins, as shown in the following equation:

of which: IOSis the input offset current. R is the additional external impedance.

The offset voltage increases based on measurements of the AD8210 and AD8418 current-sense amplifiers are shown in Table 5 and Table 6, respectively.

Table 5. AD8210 Additional Offset Voltage Due to Input Offset Current and External Impedance

Table 6. AD8418 Additional Offset Voltage Due to Input Offset Current and External Impedance

The results show that the AD8418 offset voltage increase is greater than the AD8210 offset voltage increase. This is caused by the AD8418’s input offset current of approximately 100 μA. Any additional impedance in series with the input pins combines with the input offset current to create additional offset voltage error.

in conclusion

Adding extra series resistors to the input pins is an easy way to protect the current sense amplifier from overvoltage. The effects on performance metrics such as gain error, CMRR, and offset voltage can be measured, which are directly related to the magnitude of the external resistors and the type of current-sense amplifier used. When properly designed, the circuit will improve the differential input voltage rating of the application with very limited component count increase and very little impact on accuracy.

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When the MCU moves towards high performance, there is no need to worry about the MCU or the MPU.

Microcontrollers (MCUs), as the heart of Electronic products, are widely used in consumer and industrial electronic products. Today, the development of industrial automation, next-generation automobiles, intelligent analysis, and the Internet of Everything pushes up the performance requirements for edge-side MCUs. The performance of MCU products, real-time control capabilities, and communication diversity and high-speed real-time requirements are getting higher and higher. For example, in specific industrial applications: emerging applications require higher levels of system integration and edge intelligence; industrial and automotive systems rely on precise real-time control and decision-making; distributed communication and automation trends require higher network bandwidth…

Three key technologies to realize industrial automation

Industry 4.0 and industrial automation are developing at scale, real-time control, industrial networking and edge analytics can effectively improve efficiency and productivity in automated factories.

Real-time control:Since the system has strict requirements on time, in real-time control, the system needs to have the ability to process raw data and control the signal within the required precise time. Precise control of analog signals is critical, a process that leverages improved control algorithms to increase the reliability of motor drives and the efficiency of electric vehicles. These processing requirements are beyond the capabilities of traditional MCUs.

Industrial Network:Factories need to exchange different types of data, so multiple Industrial Ethernet standards must be quickly adopted, enabling real-time communication between machines to improve system performance, safety, and reliability. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated network solution that is not only compatible with many different protocol standards, but also operates at rates up to 1Gbps.

Edge Analysis:Improvements in machine learning algorithms facilitate local optimization, where each machine or node does not need to wait for a centralized decision to perform an action. Edge processing can significantly reduce response times, enabling better and safer human-machine collaboration.

In many factory systems, such as motor control and robotics, the processor oversees the analog-to-digital conversion and digital-to-analog conversion process, but people’s high-performance computing and control needs place more demands on the processor’s capabilities.

Recently, TI has launched a new Sitara AM2x series MCU to meet the system design challenges of high computing power, high communication speed and high reliability requirements.

Combines processor-level computing performance with the design simplicity of an MCU

TI’s Sitara brand has a long history and has been widely used in the industrial field. The AM2x series MCU is a new series of Sitara brand single-chip microcomputers, which are characterized by high computing performance at the processor level and MCU-level design. Convenience and ease of use.

(Source: TI Company)

MCU is a complete system, including CPU, flash memory and RAM, and general control, such as motor control, power processing conversion and fast IO control needs, real-time peripherals are the outstanding advantages of MCU; in addition, more and more MCU products will be Focusing on functional safety and information security, traditional MCUs also add many accelerators or coprocessors related to information security, or integrate related functions.

The biggest feature of traditional MPU processors is that the CPU core performance is relatively high, basically reaching 1 GHz or more processor performance, and most of them are multi-core. By far, the largest share of MPUs on the market are high-end ARM processor cores. At the same time, the MPU will integrate high-performance RAM and DDR interfaces to achieve high-speed performance of the entire system memory and data throughput. As more and more computing power is required on the MPU, coprocessors such as deep learning, DSP and real-time control cores are integrated inside the processor. The speed, real-time and confidentiality of the communication bus required by the processor are getting higher and higher, so more and more industrial communication interfaces are integrated, such as the high-speed communication core required by industrial fields such as Gigabit Ethernet and TSN.

Sitara AM2x is a product that combines traditional MCU and traditional MPU. According to Shi Ying, director of embedded and DLP® application technology in Texas Instruments (TI) China, TI integrates high-performance ARM core, high-performance RAM, high-speed signal processing, and high-speed real-time bus interface for industrial communication. Common functional safety and information security functions and real-time peripherals unique to MCUs have resulted in the design of the Sitara AM2x series of MCUs. Engineers can leverage the AM2x family to increase computing power by a factor of 10 compared to traditional flash-based MCU products.

Low-power MCUs achieve processor-level performance

AM243x MCUs are the first models in the AM2x family of devices, featuring up to four Arm Cortex®-R5F cores, each running at up to 800MHz. These 4 R5F Cortex cores plus some internal accelerators and co-processors can provide up to 6000 DMIPS of computing power.

(Source: TI Company)

In factory equipment such as robots, fast computing power and high-speed access to MCU internal memory can simultaneously help improve the robot’s motion accuracy and motion speed, thereby increasing productivity. In typical applications, AM243x devices can reach 6000 DMIPS computing performance levels while consuming less than 1W of active power.

Integrated design realizes real-time control and multi-protocol network support at the edge

Sitara AM243x MCU integrates sensing and driving peripherals, and can cooperate with the processor to complete high-precision motor control or fast IO control tasks, enabling factory automation to achieve low-latency real-time processing and control.

AM243x devices extend TI’s support for multiple Gigabit Industrial Ethernet protocols and Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) to enable next-generation factory networking. With the AM243x, engineers can fully support industrial communication standards such as EtherNet/IP™, EtherCAT®, PROFINET®, and IO-Link master with certified, TI-provided protocol stacks, while providing proprietary support for industrial automation customers, Customize a set of its own TSN-based or Industrial Ethernet-based proprietary protocols.

Meet SIL3 standard to ensure safety

The AM243x MCU’s on-chip safety features support new cryptographic requirements, integrating functional safety mechanisms, diagnostics, and auxiliary functions to help system integrators achieve the IEC 61508 standard’s Safety Integrity Level (SIL) 3 requirements in their industrial designs, or automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL)-D, which complies with functional safety standards required in the industrial and automotive sectors.

TI integrates all functions and performance on a single chip, enabling the AM2x series to realize real-time control of industrial communication, analytical processing, information security and functional safety at the edge. At the same time, in order to further reduce the complexity of design and development, TI’s official website also provides many easy-to-use development tools, such as Sitara AM2x MCU evaluation kit AM243x LaunchPad, as well as software packages, SDK and other supporting special software; in addition , through MCU+ Academy, a brand new online resource, engineers can define the content and course progress to be learned, complete the learning of processors, supporting tools and SDKs, and then help engineers accelerate their product design.

According to reports, currently for the AM243x series, TI can provide pre-production versions AM2431, AM2432 and AM2434 in 17mm × 17mm or 11mm × 11mm packages. The market is positioned in industrial automation, PLC, motor control, robotic arms, robots, or industrial The application of a wide range of high-speed communication interfaces such as multi-protocol.

The industrial application field involves a variety of terminal equipment, and different terminal equipment has different requirements for the electronic control system. TI’s Sitara AM2x series complements the “short board” of MCU in processing performance. One chip can integrate ease of use, real-time performance, high processing power, security, etc., to meet the needs of different application scenarios for high-performance computing , real-time control, real-time communication, high integration and ease of use requirements, so it can help customers expand design options. MCU or MPU? Try Sitara AM2x MCUs!

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China Telecom took the lead in completing the wireless network coverage and optimization of all makeshift hospitals in Wuhan

  

At 17:00 on February 5, China Telecom Wuhan Branch took the lead in completing the wireless network coverage and optimization of all makeshift hospitals in Wuhan, which can fully meet the communication needs of medical staff and patients.

On the evening of February 3, Wuhan completed the construction of the first batch of 3 prescription cabin hospitals in Hongshan Gymnasium, Wuhan Living Room, and Wuhan International Convention and Exhibition Center, and started the construction of the second batch of 8 prescription cabin hospitals. China Telecom Wuhan Branch followed up at the first time, and launched the emergency construction response plan overnight. The network construction department, wireless center and party member commandos of participating units responded quickly, started the construction and optimization of the wireless network of the Fangcang shelter hospital, and made every effort to ensure that the hospital can be used in the hospital. Full communication capability guarantee is provided.

  

At 16:00 on February 4th, China Telecom’s wireless network base station equipment, optical cables, power lines and other communication equipment materials were all mobilized; at 5:00 a.m. on February 5th, the three venues A, B, and C in Wuhan living room were fully covered, and other 2 The wireless network optimization of the prescription cabin hospitals has been completed, and the network indicators of the first 3 cabin cabin hospitals have all reached the expected standards.

At the same time, on-site testing, capacity expansion and optimization and adjustment of wireless networks in 8 makeshift hospitals, including Zhuankou Sports Center, International Expo Center, and Tazihu ​​Sports Center, have been fully launched. As of 17:00 on February 5, the network optimization of the second batch of 8 makeshift hospitals has been completed. After evaluation and testing, all Fangcang shelter hospitals are guaranteed to provide high-quality wireless network services before the arrival of patients and medical staff.

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NXPUBA2016A35WTL5 High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamp Power Solution

NXP’s UBA2016A/15/15A is a 600V fluorescent lamp driver with PFC, linear dimming and boost functions. The IC includes a fluorescent lamp control module, half-bridge driver, built-in critical conduction mode PFC controller/driver and various protection mechanisms , supply voltage up to 600V, and live wire voltage up to 390V. This article introduces the main features and advantages of UBA2016A/15/15A, block diagram, basic PFC application block diagram and various TL or CFL application circuits, reference design (230VAC) board specifications, block diagram, Circuit diagram, bill of materials, PCB layout and TL5 light connection circuit diagram.

UBA2016A/15/15A:600 V fluorescent lamp driver with PFC, linear dimming and boost function

The UBA2016A/15/15A are high voltage Integrated Circuits (IC) intended to drive fluorescent lamps with filaments such as Tube Lamps (TL) and Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) in general lighting applications. The IC comprises a fluorescent lamp control module, half -bridge driver, built-in critical conduction mode Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller/driver and several protection mechanisms. The IC drives fluorescent lamp(s) using a half-bridge circuit made of two MOSFETs with a supply voltage of up to 600 V.

The UBA2016A/15/15A are designed to be supplied by a start-up bleeder resistor and a dV/dt supply from the half-bridge circuit, or any other auxiliary supply derived from the half-bridge or the PFC. The supply current of the IC is low. An internal clamp limits the supply voltage.

Main features of UBA2016A/15/15A:

 Power factor correction features:

 Integrated 4-pin critical conduction mode PFC controller/driver

 Open and short pin-short protection on PFC feedback pin

 Overcurrent protection

 Overvoltage protection

 Half-bridge driver features:

 Integrated level-shifter for the high-side driver of the half-bridge

 Integrated bootstrap diode for the high-side driver supply of the half-bridge

 Independent non-overlap time

 Fluorescent lamp controller features:

 Linear dimming (UBA2016A and UBA2015A only)

 EOL (End-Of-Life) detection (both symmetrical and asymmetrical)

 Adjustable preheat time

 Adjustable preheat current

 Adjustable fixed frequency preheat (UBA2015 and UBA2015A only)

 Lamp ignition failure detection

 Ignition detection of all lamps at multiple lamps with separate resonant tanks

 Second ignition attempt if first failed

 Constant output power independent of mains voltage variations

 Automatic restart after changing lamps

 Adjustable lamp current boost at start-up (UBA2016A only)

 Lamp current control

 Enable input (UBA2015 and UBA2015A only)

 Protection

 Hard switching/capacitive mode protection

 Half-bridge overcurrent (coil saturation) protection

 Lamp overvoltage (lamp removal) protection

 Temperature protection

UBA2016A/15/15A Application:

Intended for fluorescent lamp ballasts with either a dimmable (UBA2016A and UBA2015A) or a fixed (UBA2015) output and PFC for AC mains voltages of up to 390 V.

Figure 1. UBA2016A block diagram

Figure 2. UBA2016A basic PFC application block diagram

Figure 3. UBA2016A Basic Half-Bridge and IC Power Connection Diagram

Figure 4. Application Circuit Diagram for TL or CFL Fluorescent Lamp Using UBA2016A (FireWire Filter Not Shown)

Figure 5. Application Circuit Diagram of TL or CFL Fluorescent Lamp Using UBA2016A (Better PFC Performance, FireWire Filter Not Shown)

Figure 6. Application Circuit Diagram for TL or CFL Fluorescent Lamp with Fixed Time Start Using UBA2016A (FireWire Filter Not Shown)

Figure 7. Application Circuit Diagram for L or CFL Fluorescent Lamp Using UBA2016A with Lamp Temperature Dependent Start T (Live Wire Filter Not Shown)


Figure 8. Application Circuit Diagram Using UBA2016A Dimmable TL Fluorescent Lamp (FireWire Filter Not Shown)

UBA2015P Reference Design (230VAC)

This document describes the specification and use of the UBA2015P board. This reference ballast design is intended to drive two TL5HE28W or TL5HE35W lamps.

The board needs to be connected to the mains voltage. Touching the board while it is connected to the mains voltage must be avoided at all times. An isolated housing is obligatory when used in uncontrolled, non laboratory environments. Galvanic isolation of the mains phase using a variable transformer is always recommended.


Figure 9. UBA2015P Reference Design (230VAC) Board Outline Drawing

Reference Design (230VAC) Board Specifications:

Lamps supported by the reference design (230VAC) board:

The input section includes:

• The fuse

• Surge protection against fast AC transients

• ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) filter

• Full-wave rectifier

• Preconditioner or Power Factor Correction (PFC)

The output of the PFC connects to a electrolytic buffer capacitor to supply the half-bridge circuit. The lamp connects to the half-bridge circuit. The UBA2015P controller IC controls the PFC and the half-bridge circuit.

The PFC is implemented as an up converter in boundary conduction mode. The resonant circuit is voltage fed by the half-bridge which consists of two N-channel MOSFETs. The resonant circuit includes a transformer for electrode (pre)heating.

Figure 10. UBA2015P Reference Design (230VAC) Board Block Diagram

Figure 11. Lamp Connection Circuit Diagram

Figure 12. UBA2015P Reference Design (230VAC) Board Circuit Diagram

UBA2015P Reference Design (230VAC) Board Bill of Materials (BOM):


Figure 13. UBA2015P Reference Design (230VAC) Board PCB Layout
For details, see:
http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/UBA2016A_15_15A.pdf
and
http://www.nxp.com/documents/user_manual/UM10466.pdf

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How Microcontroller On-Chip DACs Generate Precision Analog Signals

Some 32-bit microcontrollers have on-chip digital-to-analog converters (DACs) for frequency or voltage generation. For many applications, this configuration not only provides more functionality, but also saves board space. However, these applications may require dedicated DAC functionality not available in the microcontroller.

Author: Bill Giovino

Some 32-bit microcontrollers have on-chip digital-to-analog converters (DACs) for frequency or voltage generation. For many applications, this configuration not only provides more functionality, but also saves board space. However, these applications may require dedicated DAC functionality not available in the microcontroller.

This article begins by discussing the capabilities and limitations of microcontroller on-chip DACs, then presents examples of high-precision external DAC solutions, and finally shows how they can be used to generate precision analog signals.

How the On-Chip DAC Works

To enable designers to generate custom analog signals, microcontroller manufacturers have begun adding on-chip DAC peripherals to microcontrollers. These units can be used to generate precision voltages, as well as custom waveforms including sine and triangle waves. In addition, the DAC can also be used for speech synthesis.

The output voltage produced by the DAC can be as low as 0 volts or as high as the DAC’s analog reference voltage. The voltage is proportional to the digital value in the DAC data register, and the accuracy depends on the resolution of the DAC. For example, if the resolution of the DAC is 8 bits and the reference voltage is 5 volts, the 1 LSB accuracy of the DAC is 5/255 = 0.0196 volts. Therefore, ideally, if the 8-bit DAC data register contains 01h, the DAC output would be equivalent to 1 LSB or 0.0196 volts. If the 8-bit DAC data register contains the value F1h (241), the output of an ideal DAC would be 4.7236 volts. Ideally, if 01h is added to the DAC data register, the output voltage value should increase by 1 LSB.

Of course, like any analog circuit, there is no ideal DAC. The difference between the DAC output value and the ideal value of the data register is called the differential nonlinearity (DNL) error and is measured in LSBs. For example, a typical microcontroller DAC might specify a DNL of ±2 LSB.

In addition, the DAC suffers from linear gain error, which is measured as a percentage increase to the ideal output, typically 0.5% on the output voltage.

For an ideal DAC, the plot of the output value versus the contents of the DAC data register would be a straight line. For an actual DAC, it will also be a straight line by adding the linearity error caused by the variation of the DAC circuit parameters. In reality, this line is not really a straight line, but bends outward to form a nonlinear curve. This nonlinearity is also a result of voltage and temperature changes in the DAC circuit. Such nonlinear errors are called integral nonlinear (INL) errors. For microcontroller DACs, this error can be ±4 LSB or more.

When generating frequencies, the fastest output frequency of the microcontroller DAC is limited to the microcontroller’s CPU frequency.

All DACs require an accurate reference voltage to provide precision analog signals. On newer microcontrollers, the DAC reference voltage is usually derived from a dedicated analog reference pin. This analog reference voltage inside the microcontroller is kept separate from the internal digital logic to minimize power supply ripple. However, high-speed digital logic may cause some small disturbances. While DAC peripherals are less susceptible to power supply ripple when generating sine waves, this ripple can be noticeable when a stable and accurate output voltage is required, or when generating synthetic speech or musical tones.

While using a higher reference voltage minimizes the effects of power supply ripple, it also prevents the DAC from producing smaller voltages, while also reducing the accuracy of the DAC by 1 LSB.

Single-Chip External DAC for Small Signals

The DAC peripheral on most microcontrollers provides sufficient accuracy for common applications. However, there are situations where extreme precision and/or speed is required, and the use of an external DAC may be necessary.

Texas Instruments has a range of external DACs that can generate analog signals for a variety of design problems. For example, if you are running out of board space, you can use the DAC80508MYZFT 16-bit DAC, which is very small, measuring only 2.4 x 2.4 mm, in a DSBGA package. The DAC has eight outputs and can interface with most microcontrollers via an SPI interface with clock rates up to 50 megahertz (MHz) (Figure 1).


Figure 1: The DAC80508 can be connected to most microcontrollers via the SPI interface and has eight identical analog output channels. (Image credit: Texas Instruments)

The DAC80508 can use either an external analog reference or the DAC’s digital supply voltage to generate its own 2.5 volt internal reference with an accuracy of ±5 mV. The reference voltage drift is as low as two parts per million per degree Celsius (ppm/°C). This drift value provides a highly stable reference voltage over a temperature range of -40°C to +125°C. Alternatively, the reference voltage can be divided by 2 to provide an analog signal with a 1.25 V upper limit.

The DAC80508 has a precision not found in most microcontroller DAC peripherals. INL and DNL are both ±0.5 LSB typical and ±1 LSB maximum. Gain error is ±0.5% typical and ±1% maximum. With 16-bit resolution, this level of accuracy is ideal for converting digital audio signals to analog. For example, the product can be used to convert Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) digital audio transmitted over fiber optic cables, or to convert digital audio from storage devices. After converting digital audio to 16-bit audio data, the DAC80508 can convert these data to analog audio signals sent over a normal RCA cable. If the reference voltage is set to 1.25 volts, this accuracy is sufficient to generate a line-level audio signal.

In addition, the DAC80508 features an output gain amplifier that doubles the output voltage to generate an output voltage twice the reference voltage.

Using the DAC80508 to generate analog waveforms is very simple through the SPI interface. Each SPI command packet sent to the DAC data register is 32 bits wide. Each command packet contains the channel address to be written, and the 16-bit data to be written to the register. Any DAC80508 output channel can be programmed to produce an output voltage as soon as data is written to the register, or to retain all values ​​in the DAC data register until the SPI writes to the internal broadcast register. Writing a logic ‘1’ to any of the eight broadcast register bit positions will only update the corresponding DAC output with the value in the DAC data register. This generates a synchronization signal suitable for generating waveforms for test equipment.

Avoid signal errors and noise

When used in noisy industrial environments, occasional interference is inevitable, especially in high voltage environments. To prevent output signal errors due to SPI interference, the DAC80508 can optionally generate an 8-bit checksum at the end of each SPI packet (Figure 2). If the checksum is valid, write to the DAC data register. But if the checksum is invalid, no data will be written. Optionally, when the checksum is invalid, the DAC can pull the SPI SDO pin low, acting as an active low alarm pin. The microcontroller firmware should be responsible for handling invalid checksums.


Figure 2: 32-bit SPI packet structure. When the DAC data register SPI packet of the DAC80508 contains an 8-bit checksum, the packet is sent MSB first, and the last few bits (7:0) contain the checksum. The checksum is automatically generated by the DAC80508. (Image credit: Texas Instruments)

No matter how accurate the DAC is marked, accuracy can only be guaranteed with a clean power supply. It is critical that the VDD of the DAC80508 has low noise and no ripple. Extra care must be taken if the DAC80508 is used in a DC-DC converter, as these supplies are inherently very noisy. Filtering VDD is important, so a 1-10 microfarad (μF) capacitor must be placed between VDD and analog ground, as well as a 0.1μF capacitor. Low ESR ceramic capacitors should be used and placed as close as possible to the VDD pin.

Analog signal outputs should be kept near the edge of the printed circuit board and should be adequately isolated from digital components. This not only prevents interference with the DAC analog outputs, but also prevents these analog signals from interfering with other signals on the printed circuit board.

High-speed high-performance DAC

Sometimes demanding applications require extreme performance. DACs can even generate gigahertz-level signals. This feature of DACs is especially important for radar equipment when direct analog circuitry cannot produce the accuracy required for radar. For such applications, Texas Instruments’ DAC38RF82IAAV high-speed RF dual-channel DAC can be used to generate waveforms above 1 gigahertz (GHz) in a relatively small 10 mm x 10 mm BGA package (Figure 3).


Figure 3: The DAC38RF82 is an ultra-high performance DAC capable of generating waveforms above 1 GHz. The DAC connects to the host microprocessor through a low-power, 8-channel JEDSD204B 12.5 Gb/s interface. (Image credit: Texas Instruments)

The DAC38RF82 supports three resolutions. When set to 16-bit resolution, RF signals up to 2 GHz can be generated. When 12-bit resolution is selected, a 2.66 GHz signal can be generated. The fastest mode is set to 8-bit resolution, where the DAC38RF82 can generate 4.5 GHz waveforms. Of course, these speeds exceed the capabilities of any microcontroller’s on-chip DAC peripheral.

The performance of the DAC38RF82 is high enough for use in baseband transmitters such as cell towers, and can also be used to generate custom waveforms for applications such as high-end test equipment. Additionally, the DAC38RF82 can be used to generate radar signals for autonomous vehicles.

This device is more complex than the DAC80508. To generate signals up to 4.5 GHz, an extremely fast data interface is required. The DAC38RF82 uses the JESD204B serial data interface, which can reach speeds of up to 9 Gb/s in 8-bit mode. With these interface speeds, the device can interface with FPGAs or ASICs.

When used in 12-bit or 16-bit mode, the DAC38RF82 can generate two RF waveforms, while in high-speed 8-bit mode, only one waveform is supported. The device requires three supply voltages, 1V, 1.8V, and -1.8V. Given the typical application requirements of this device, these supply voltages must be very clean and ripple-free. Ideally, the three main and relatively independent parts of the DAC (digital subsystem, analog subsystem, and clock subsystem) should each have their own partitioned power supplies to avoid any unexpected interactions.

The DNL of the DAC is typically ±3 LSB, the INL is typically ±4 LSB, and the gain error is typically ±2%. Accuracy for a given application can be ensured by selecting the appropriate DAC data register values ​​during testing.

Start DAC38RF82 development

To be able to generate such high frequencies with sufficient accuracy, the evaluation board plays a key role in the development process. The DAC38RF82 is powered by the DAC38RF82EVM evaluation and development board, which supports all the features of this high-end DAC. The DAC38RF82 requires the TSW14J56EVM data capture interface board to generate digital signals that connect to the DAC38RF82EVM. The data capture board is connected to the PC via the USB 3.0 interface.


Figure 4: The digital data generated by the TSW14J56EVM on the right is fed through the JESD204B interface to the DAC38RF82EVM on the left to generate RF signals for testing. (Image credit: Texas Instruments)

The included evaluation software contains everything needed to evaluate, test and program the DAC38RF82 for the target application.

Layout is especially important when using such high-speed devices. The DAC38RF82 must be located on the edge of the printed circuit board and separated from all other components as much as possible. Designers must strictly adhere to the principle of using short RF traces and preferably using bypass capacitors between the power pins and ground. Other layout suggestions include using bypass capacitors with pad vias and as short a tap as possible to avoid parasitic inductance. Additionally, designers should use 100Ω differential coplanar waveguides as output traces.

in conclusion

Microcontrollers with general-purpose on-chip DACs are suitable for generating kilohertz-level voltages and waveforms with reasonable accuracy. To generate precision voltages or very high speeds, an external DAC can be used to significantly improve the accuracy and performance of the application, but it is also necessary to make some improvements in design practices in terms of power and layout.

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Virtex-7 FPGA Gen3 integrated module Completion timeout mechanism

With any split transaction protocol there is a risk that Requesters will not get the desired Completion. To allow Requesters to use a standard way to recover from this situation, the Completion timeout mechanism is specified.

The PCIE specification stipulates that PCIE devices that issue Requests that require Completions must implement the Completion Timeout mechanism. With the exception of Configuration Requests. The Completion timeout mechanism is activated every time a PCIE device sends a Requests that require Completions. PCIE Root Complexes, PCI Express-PCI Bridges, and Endpoints need to implement the Completion timeout mechanism. Switches do not need to actively initiate operations, so there is no need for Completion timeout.

Completion timeout can be disabled by configuration software. The Completion Timeout is disabled by bit 4 of the configuration register Device Control 2.

figure 1

In the Gen3 Integrated Block of V7, there are some special places in the implementation of Completion Timeout, which need to be paid attention to when applying.

First, configure the bit of Device Control 2 of the register[3:0]The value of Completion timeout is specified, and bit4 controls the disable of Completion timeout. This part is consistent with the specification.

figure 2

In addition, in the properties of Gen3 Integrated Block, there are some properties related to Completion timeout.The first is PF0_DEV_CAP2_CPL_TIMEOUT_DISABLE, this propertyControls whether Completion timeout is allowed to be disabled. By default this property is set to FALSE.If you need to modify this property, you need toModified in the verilog/VHLD code.

image 3

Secondly, there are two attributes TL_COMPL_TIMEOUT_REG0/1, which control the value of timeout.These two propertiesCorresponding to the bit of the vice Control 2 respectively[3:0]Set to the case of 0101 and 0110.Under these two settings, the value of timeout is controlled by these two properties. Again, these two properties can also be modified by the relevant verilog/VHLD code.

Figure 4

In fact, although the bit of Device Control 2[3:0]9 timeout values ​​are defined, only bit3[3:0]When set to 0101 and 0110,The Completion timeout mechanism of the Gen3 Integrated Block can only work. When set to other values, the Completion timeout mechanism does not work. Special attention should be paid to this point. If a timeout mechanism is required, the bit of Device Control 2 must be set.[3:0]Set to one of these two values.

When a timeout occurs, on the Requester Completion bus, the bit of the completion[15:12]Will be set to 1001, indicating that tim appearseout. At this time, Completion has only bit 30 (request Completed bit), bits [71: 64] (tag field) and bits [55: 48](requester Function field) is valid.

Figure 5

The following figure is a simulated TIMEOUT waveform, setting the bit of Device Control 2[3:0]is 0x5, set PF0_DEV_CAP2_CPL_TIMEOUT_DISABLE toFALSE, set TL_COMPL_TIMEOUT_REG0/1 to 0x1 (in order to shorten the simulation time). when Requester did not get the Completion, after timeout, you can see that 1001 Er appeared on the RC busror code.

Image 6

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Muboyun Intelligent Parking Lock System – Make Parking Sharing Easier

Mobo Technology officially launched the latest generation of cloud intelligent parking lock system. The main product adopts NB-IoT (5G) and RF-433MHz communication mode, the models are MVB-SL02-NB and MVB-SL02-5G respectively, which can realize reserved parking and sharing. Parking and multi-scene unattended applications.

Muboyun smart parking lock

1. Application scenarios

Reserved parking, shared parking

Unattended management of dedicated parking spaces

Intelligent management of new energy charging pile parking spaces

2. Product shell

The lock body material is made of reinforced nylon, which replaces the traditional metal material, which greatly improves the efficiency of wireless transmission and reception, makes it more accurate to judge the occupancy status of the parking space, and provides more accurate data support for the vehicle to leave and lock. At the same time, the weight of the lock body is reduced, and the power consumption of the swing arm is lower. After testing, the number of swing arms is as high as 40,000 times, which is far ahead of similar products.

3. System Architecture

4. Product advantages

Departure self-detection: The cloud smart parking lock system integrates a millimeter-wave radar sensor. When the vehicle leaves the field, the sensor detects that there is no car occupancy, and automatically raises the swing arm to lock, without the need for the owner to manually lock.

Remote maintenance: Cloud smart parking lock background management system supports remote firmware upgrade, power monitoring, troubleshooting, signal monitoring and other functions.

Remote APP control + near-field remote control control: The cloud smart parking lock system integrates three wireless functions: NB-IoT, 5G remote networking and 433MHz near-field control.

Anti-collision and anti-compression: a certain buffer rebound to prevent the parking lock from being damaged by collision; anti-pressure protection, the shell bears 5 tons, and the rocker arm can be 180 degrees anti-collision and anti-pressure.

5. Use the process

APP parking space search, reservation APP prepaid fee navigation destination scan code lock down Entry parking Vehicle leave the automatic lock up Self-service APP deduction

6. Commercial Value

Through the integration of the three-party information of parking spaces, users and parking lots, combined with the functions of scanning code parking, APP control, self-service deduction, remote operation and maintenance, status monitoring, and anti-occupancy, the Muboyun intelligent parking space lock system makes the traditional parking space More intelligent and user-friendly, making reserved parking and shared parking gradually enter the public life, at the same time, the intelligent parking management system can also reduce the cost of manual duty for the parking lot operators, improve the customer experience, improve the utilization rate of parking spaces, and increase the operating cost of parking spaces. receive.

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How blockchain technology will drive the formation of new business symbiosis

There are representative companies in every era and every industry. Entrepreneurship is to use new technology and new thinking to do a new business all over again.

In 2006, you wanted to buy a house in Shanghai and found a second-hand real estate agency. The leading company at that time was Zhongyuan. But 2016 has become a chain home, what is the difference between them?

First, in terms of service details, Zhongyuan serves the post-50s and post-60s. They have experienced the Cultural Revolution and are not very particular about service. Lianjia serves the post-80s and post-90s. When they were born, they had good shopping malls and good restaurants, and they were picky about service.

Second, the Central Plains requires that each industry generation is not allowed to make any more difference, and takes you to see 200 houses with hard work. However, Lianjia has made efforts in intelligence. There is a SaaS, which can search for 50 houses from 200 houses according to your search dimension. These houses for sale have been made into short videos. You can watch short videos in the air-conditioning at home For the video, you can basically select 15 suites from it, and then go out to watch it, it will be efficient.

Third, Zhongyuan respects industry generation, and everyone has their own personality. Lianjia doesn’t have to have personality anymore, it has processes and steps. In the past, the Central Plains was the growth of domestic demand, and it took 15 years to open 500 stores in Shenzhen. Now Lianjia will use financial means to open 500 households in Shenzhen for 3 years.

If you create a new era company, you must grasp two things: First, grasp the “strong structural elements” at the bottom of doing business. Second, seize the “strong environmental elements” of technology and society at that time.

1. Observe the ongoing business change from three levels:

The top layer is consumption changes, the middle layer is experience and services, and the bottom layer is organization and infrastructure. In other words, the upper layer is the change of “people”, the middle layer is the change of “goods” and “field”, and the bottom layer is the change of enterprise management resources and capabilities. Between them from the bottom up, one layer supports one layer.

At the top level, there are two major driving forces for consumption changes

Let’s talk about consumer drivers first. Those born in the 70s should be full, those born in the 80s should eat well, and those born in the 90s should have fun. As consumers’ disposable income increases, they begin to pursue fun eating. In the past, the traditional Cha-Cha Melon Seeds, Yinlu Eight-Treasure Porridge, and Missing You All were good products of conscientious enterprises. However, with the upgrading of consumption, “interesting” gave birth to new brands such as Three Squirrels.

From the perspective of technology driving, it is to digitize consumers, digitize logistics, digitize retail terminals, and put every link in the value chain on the cloud for analysis, so as to quickly respond to consumer needs. Responsive and satisfied. From pure offline physical store consumption to online shopping in the PC era, to mobile Internet shopping, there will be new ways of reaching, communicating and trading such as intelligent voice assistants in the future.

The middle layer, looking at changes from a demand-side perspective and a supply-side perspective

From the perspective of the (consumer) demand side, it is called “experience”. Commodity is the absolute first experience, it “satisfies consumer demand”; the second experience is “business format”, that is, “the way to meet demand”. Consumers who want to buy the same product can use convenience stores, hypermarkets, traffic e-commerce, content e-commerce, O2O, C2M, C2B, F2F and other formats, each format has a combination of multiple contents and multiple scenarios, so that consumers can get Ideal multi-scene experience value.

From the perspective of the supply side (brand side), it is called “channel service”. The first service content on the channel is to ensure that the product information is clear and the logistics is stable and available. Next, in response to the evolution of consumers’ purchasing habits such as time and space, various traditional offline channel types have been developed. For example, after the advent of the mobile Internet, various online terminal channel types have been developed.

The bottom layer, the reconstruction of management resources and capabilities

There has been a big change in the way businesses operate when it comes to managing “multiple parallel” consumer touchpoints. Enterprises need to make quick decisions and responses to consumer needs, and can efficiently seize business opportunities, acquire users, satisfy users, retain and operate users. At the same time, enterprises also need to arm themselves with digital infrastructure, and use mobile terminals + 5G connection + cloud computing + data + SaaS system to integrate commodity flow, inventory flow, order flow, membership flow, etc., to improve the operational efficiency of enterprises .

Since the concept of new retail was proposed to the present, no benchmarking company has appeared yet. In fact, some innovative companies have only done a little bit. We use these three-level frameworks to analyze what Starbucks and Luckin Coffee have done.

Starbucks believes that consumers need a third space in addition to home and office to rest and socialize. And Ruixing Coffee believes that any place can become the third space of consumers. Because of the mobile phone, it will appear in many different scenarios.

Based on such different perceptions, Starbucks stores are mainly experience stores, while Luckin has made 4 different store models. Starbucks’ main way to meet consumer demand is to buy in stores; in addition to offline purchases, Luckin can also choose to pick up or deliver after ordering online.

Organization and infrastructure. Starbucks’ strategic alliance with Ele.me and Hema has expanded its contact points with consumers. These contact points, such as Taobao, Alipay, Hema, and Ele.me, can help Starbucks to drain traffic online and bring consumers what they want to drink. Coffee delivery to any scene. In terms of organization and infrastructure, Starbucks has stepped out of its original scope and entered the broader Ali new retail ecosystem. At this stage, Ruixing still develops in its own relatively independent and closed system, rather than in an ecosystem.

When Victor wrote the book “Big Data”, he mentioned that with the advent of the mobile Internet era, the world will be completely changed by four technologies in our business, and the participation and interactive 3.0 business will appear. These technologies include: mobile terminals, social media, big data, cloud computing.

But if blockchain technology emerges, it will allow human beings to enter the encrypted economy and smart economy from the digital economy, which will be a brand new subversion.

2. How will the blockchain reconstruct the “commercial symbiosis”?

The study of business models is mostly carried out from the perspective of studying the “transaction subject”, that is, the study of focal enterprises (core enterprises). For example, Ctrip is an OTA platform company that sells travel packages, air tickets and hotels. It creates value for users in a business ecosystem, and users pay it. But if it doesn’t create value for the airline, and the airline doesn’t let him sell air tickets, the business cannot be done.

In essence, core companies form a “department” in the business ecosystem, which Westerners call a “commercial symbiosis”. Therefore, in addition to seeing whether the blockchain adds value to core enterprises, it also depends on whether the blockchain adds value to the entire “commercial symbiosis”, creating higher structural efficiency and reconstructing the business structure.

For a core enterprise, the field that creates value for customers is called the customer ecosystem; the field that creates value for partners is called the partner ecosystem. A business can open its doors to do business because it has one or more “businesses”. For example, Meituan’s earliest business was group buying, but Meituan has been working hard to gain insight into other business opportunities. In 2013, Meituan entered the “Daojia” business, that is, the takeaway business, so it found a larger market value area. a customer ecosystem.

We also need to think about whether there will be new business opportunities with the emergence of blockchain, that is, to find a new business and a new value zone, will it be possible to make breakthroughs in business?

The business symbiosis is composed of all transaction stakeholders (stakeholders) in the “office”, each of which is a role.

For example, the banking symbiosis is composed of many business roles, and the business activities between roles are linked in chronological order, which is the logic and path of creating value. The emergence of new technologies is often accompanied by the automation of business activities by IT. The value created by the original business role is replaced by IT, the original transaction link disappears, or a new role using new IT technology appears, and a new transaction link appears, making the business symbiosis more efficient and stable.

In the new business symbiosis driven by the blockchain, the role of the best aggregation can be reduced. All characters can earn more and profit more than before, and together make this new symbiote bigger.

The essence of the design of the business model is that the “core enterprise” finds a business with high growth potential, and configures the most suitable set of roles and business activities for this business. Character Aggregation and Activation Efficacy.

In the application of blockchain technology in business, can we find a new way for the roles to more effectively aggregate in the “cooperation mode” and “incentive mode”, and generate higher efficiency in the partner ecosystem and the user ecosystem? viscosity?

3. Development of blockchain and token model

The basic consensus of everyone is: Blockchain 1.0 is Bitcoin, and Blockchain 2.0 is Ethereum. Let’s not talk about 3.0 first, we will talk about 1.0 and 2.0.

What is Bitcoin itself? It is a time chain written with four to five layers of software. A batch of accounting data, which may be structured data or unstructured data, is packaged into a digital package every ten minutes. Then, through the lottery, a variety of servers are drawn to help it keep accounts. After recording, several people are right, no problem, they will give him a reward. The reward is a virtual form of currency, which is called mining.

Therefore, the currency issued in version 1.0 is a pure digital currency, which cannot be tampered with. But the 2.0 Ethereum has a new type of thing called smart contract. I personally think that from now on, token (pass) and (coin) digital currency will be separated.

For example, everyone knows what I’m talking about. If the time is pushed back two or a hundred years, the Qing Dynasty issued 3,000 coupons because of the flood disaster in the south of the Yangtze River. Then one year later, this ticket will give six taels of silver as a reward. This example is on our certificate and currency, the ticket is the token, and the silver is the coin is the currency.

What is token? is a programmable digital ticket. All business terms, including the value of the rewarded coins, can be written on the programming of this token. So token is a ticket that can be circulated on the digital asset highway. As for the currency, it is the real value in the value system that the coupons will be exchanged for in the future.

I will use an example to explain to you, maybe you will understand clearly.

Suppose I am a marketing expert, and Procter & Gamble commissioned me to do a survey and find 10,000 people to write a questionnaire. How to do it with today’s method? Make an app first, then find a lot of people to sign up on it, tell everyone to fill out the questionnaire, and you will be paid in the future. Soon 150,000 people registered on this app, so I wrote a smart contract, compiled all the questionnaires to be sent in this smart contract, and also compiled a clause, as long as you can answer well, I will review After you pass it, you can get about one or two digital currencies. No matter who owns the digital currency, it is the digital currency I bought in the background.

When you help me send this questionnaire, the AI ​​system behind me can automatically find the most suitable 10,000 people by marking and send this questionnaire to him. These respondents saw it. When he completed the automatic review in the background, my smart contract automatically replied to tell everyone that you passed, and then automatically gave you a coin address. You can have a password to go to this place to get these certificate.

What’s the beautiful thing in this? In the past, I had to ask the bank to pay 10,000 people when I paid, but now I don’t need it, and the smart contract automatically responds. So this smart contract is a token to me. In the end, all those who do the questionnaire get the coin, which is this coin.

However, this is not available in the Bitcoin version 1.0 of the blockchain. It is available in Ethereum. However, the processing speed of Ethereum is relatively slow at present. There should be other blockchains soon. The emergence of a layered architecture, with faster processing, allows this encoded ticket to be used more flexibly.

Therefore, on the chain of the asset highway, token is equivalent to a circulating currency attribute, it is not just an enhanced version of points.

In fact, a token in the narrow sense means that the terms are not written into the programming. In this case, a token is a coin. When a token becomes a bill, and more terms are written on the token, its essence is a smart contract, it has more application space than coin and this currency. But it cannot be without coins, because coins are the unit of value calculation.

The “chain” of the blockchain is a time chain that packages everyone’s account (fact data) into an immutable block throughout the time. “Certificate” is an Electronic bill that can be encoded, on which all transaction terms are written. “Coin” is digital currency.

4. The Era of Business 4.0

We do not see blockchain as a single technology. We think of five or six technology packages as a new set of technologies. This includes sensors, artificial intelligence transformed from big data, the bottom layer of blockchain, nanotechnology, and biochips, all of which have been packaged to create a new business, commonly known as the business 4.0 era.

With any new technology, there are some previous batches made in heaven. What do so many 4.0 technologies support first in the 4.0 business?

For example: a film company made a movie, and this thing is actually a digital asset. This digital asset is on the chain. After the timestamp is stamped, no one can tamper with it, and there is a smart contract in it. This one is on the chain, and it can also be listed on the currency. The currency does not have to be issued by itself. You can also find a fair third party to buy the currency.

If you go to Youku, Tudou or iQiyi for distribution, and you want to watch a movie, you will buy five digital currencies of a certain kind. Go to Youku and Tudou to buy it, watch it after you buy it, recommend it to others after reading it, and recommend it to others, and it costs another five coins to buy it. The smart contract in this digital asset will automatically allocate these five coins. Among them, one is for Youku and Tudou; two are for film companies, and two are for recommenders.

A blockchain project based on digital assets like this is less like a pseudo-demand, because it can be quickly applied. But there are indeed many projects that are currently difficult to get real applications.

For example, two years ago, a project leader said that after digitizing a painting of Zhang Hai, he divided it into 200 copies, and the 200 copies could be invested by 200 people, and it became decentralized. Invest, not one person owning two hundred copies. I think this logic is absolutely plausible. That is, in the virtual world, everyone can invest in a decentralized way.

But what I want to ask is, can such a project be decentralized? Who is going to collect such a painting? Should a professional organization put this painting in a place with air conditioning and anti-theft, but the damage is in this place. What if a mouse eats the painting?

Our transactions in the virtual world all have blockchains, timestamps, and smart contracts. This is no problem. But in real assets, the quality of the real assets cannot be guaranteed.

As long as this kind of thing is related to the quality of physical assets, the blockchain is divided into two. Transactions in the blockchain are very deterministic, but the quality in the entity is difficult to determine because it cannot be digitized. I have always thought that it is difficult to solve this part of physical assets on the chain, and I dare not say that it is a pseudo-demand. But it feels weird and not very reliable.

For a more realistic example, the transaction of a house can be carried out in installments using a smart contract, but when a buyer really takes the key and opens it and finds that the quality inside is not as good as expected, it is not a blockchain things that can be solved. In fact, there are some physical assets that are very difficult to define digitally.

Looking at the current many blockchain white papers, what can be done? Either it is a digital asset such as a movie, or it is a research digital asset, or it is an entertainment ecosystem such as insurance and advertising intermediaries. I think it is more suitable for the application of original content on the chain.

Jianshu is a UGC platform and also has a web version. In the earliest days, it encouraged all people to write manuscripts through the mobile Internet. There are romance novels, science fiction novels, and later other categories. When there are tens of thousands of articles, the good and the bad will be mixed.

Through the activity in the group, Jianshu found that many people worked hard and had the ability to appreciate. The first community was created by mobilizing the power of the masses, called the editor-in-chief group. To help them review which manuscripts are good and which are not good, is to do the recommended work. Like I said, a self-organization driven by a person in charge will do very well.

Will the original content be tampered with? In fact, a piece of content can be divided into a non-tamperable version, a co-creation version, or an invitation-to-create version. This is a digital asset, and it is actually very easy to get on the chain. On the chain and the incentive system for issuing coins, whether it is issued by yourself or not, a very good mechanism can be formed.

5. The impact of blockchain on industry, business and organizations

When the mobile Internet came, we talked about something called fan economy and community business. It is to let users generate content through UGC, and at the same time help everyone, and then generate new products.

However, the result of the three-year experiment is that this society does not have much collective wisdom, that is, there are not too many communities that can gather together for a long time and become high-quality collective wisdom. This is the spontaneous collective wisdom. Sometimes, without the guidance of the master, it is difficult to produce efficacy. This is what we have seen in the past three years.

In fact, in the era of mobile Internet, not much has been achieved. In the blockchain, we must pay attention to whether it can really arouse a high degree of participation and investment of most people, which will be generated after collective operation. Higher potency, and each individual gets assigned.

Recently I saw a company that does cross-border e-commerce insurance. The insurance of cross-border e-commerce can be divided into products, logistics, customs clearance, credit, and after-sales.

For example, what is logistics? Guaranteed logistics means that in the whole process of logistics and distribution, there may be problems such as damage, loss of packages, and delays. It will have a compensation policy of “must arrive within 15 days, if it fails to arrive or is delayed, it will be compensated”. In this claim, the logistics company comes to insure. It is conceivable that in the process of insuring a logistics company, for example, sending chickpeas from South America to Shanghai, China, there may be three warehouses, three flights, and two trunk logistics in the middle.

Is there a smart contract for automatic claims settlement based on blockchain technology? Through the understanding of big data, we can know which link is delayed. We call this application the industrial blockchain. In this industrial blockchain, every link is actually willing to join the industrial blockchain.

Because, after it is encrypted with the timestamp, it can be very clear which link is often wrong. These so-called high-quality nodes that do not make mistakes will be recognized by the society, and if they issue tokens behind them, they can also be motivated by tokens.

In this smart contract, in the process of writing, in the entire industrial blockchain, if there are many situations in each link, it will automatically deduct the money as a penalty. This kind of execution is very easy to execute. of. In the end, through big data and artificial intelligence, he will optimize those bad intermediate links (intermediate warehousing, or trunk logistics or airlines), leaving better things.

The insurance industry is a very large industry. Let me take this example to see the reconstruction of the industry by the blockchain, which is also the part of the industrial blockchain that can create value. So, someone asked, is it possible for blockchain to subvert some centralized sharing platforms, such as Uber and Airbnb?

Uber and Airbnb use apps on the mobile Internet as a kind of marketplace called Level 4, allowing everyone to book rooms and cars. With the blockchain, many such intermediaries can actually create a car booking system that combines all parties on it. It may smash huge platforms like Uber and Airbnb into smaller platforms. But there is still a small centralized operation between platforms.

However, at the end of all business, brand operation is still very important. Because brand operation represents a quality, this cannot be solved by technology, but by the details of execution and service.

Furthermore, we will think, will the self-organization brought by the blockchain subvert the shareholding system that has existed for hundreds of years?

In fact, in the process of centralization, especially transaction-based products, such as selling Coca-Cola or instant noodles, still have a certain scale effect and exist value. However, if it is a value-based service, especially a customized and personalized service, there may be very fragmented self-organization in the future, and you can reallocate economic resources without going through a joint-stock company.

There are two prerequisites for the operation of self-organization: first, the invisible organizer is helping everyone to set the rules of the game; the second is to break up the large organization into more small V, and there must be a logic of cooperation between them.

I think the application of blockchain must be thought of as two parts. For the whole society, or for various organizations, it can open source and save money.

What is open source, that is, in a company organization or a business symbiosis, it can be bound by more input from all people, expand more participation, and create more sales and circulation. However, in many organizations, it can help us reduce its friction costs and transaction costs. Therefore, it is a completely standard product, and the supply is unlimited. It does not necessarily need a blockchain. It can do other cost-reducing applications on the blockchain.

The design of the blockchain is actually similar to the design of the mobile Internet. It must be based on the scenario, to think about how the blockchain can help him, either to increase sales or reduce its cost.

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Over 400 million cyber-attacks on systems during Tokyo Olympics

Kyodo News recently interviewed the Tokyo Olympic Organizing Committee and learned that during the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games, there were about 450 million cyber attacks on the official website and the Olympic Organizing Committee system. Illegal access has been cut off without affecting the operation of the event. There are also concerns that the Olympics are easy to be targeted by hacker groups and cause serious losses, but this time it was successfully prevented.

This is the first time to learn of the scale of the cyber attack on the Tokyo Olympics. The number of attacks was less than in the 2012 London Olympics and the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics. An analysis by information security company Trend Micro said: “It may be that tickets and audience-oriented information could not be used for attacks due to the empty venue under the new crown epidemic.”

The Olympic Organizing Committee emphasized: “Successful prevention and no loss. This is the result of a concerted effort by all concerned to share information and take countermeasures.”

According to the Olympic Organizing Committee and others, from the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games to the end of the Paralympic Games on July 23, the number of illegal visits to the official website and the Olympic Organizing Committee system was cut off about 450 million times due to cyber attacks. Although the specific circumstances of the attack method are not clear, most of them are considered to be “DDoS attacks” in which a large amount of data is sent to the system in a short period of time to disable it.

Among the known attacks on the Olympic Games, the London Olympics is the largest in history. During the period, the official website alone was attacked about 200 million times, including related institutions, a total of about 2.3 billion times. The PyeongChang Winter Olympics as a whole are about 600 million times. It was originally expected that the number of attacks against the Tokyo Olympics would exceed that of London, but only about 20%.

According to the Japan Cabinet Network Security Center (NISC), a number of illegal websites pretending to publish videos of the opening ceremony and various competitions, as well as messages on social networking sites (SNS) inciting cyber attacks, have also been confirmed, but none have affected the operation of the event. s attack.

Related topics we’ve covered previously:

Microsoft: Russian Hackers May Target Tokyo 2020 Olympics

Japanese think tank predicts Russia will launch cyber attack on Tokyo Olympics

Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games Organizing Committee Sensitive Data Leaked!

Officials admit: Tokyo Olympics ticket buyer information leaked online

The Beijing Winter Olympics will be held on February 4, 2022.

The Winter Olympics have a long cycle, many venues, complex systems and high openness, especially the widespread use of digital technologies, making it impossible to prevent cybersecurity threats. From the malware attack at the Vancouver Winter Olympics, to the DDoS attack during the London Olympics, to the broadcast accident at the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics, the Olympic Games network security has faced severe risks and challenges for a long time. A key part of the overall requirements for a safe and exciting event.

As an important force supporting and guaranteeing the cybersecurity of the Beijing Winter Olympics, the cybersecurity department of the capital’s public security organ has made it clear that it will focus on strengthening the cybersecurity protection of the Beijing Winter Olympics, continue to carry out special operations to clean up the Internet, and launch a cluster campaign against cyber-related crimes and harm industries. , strengthen the security level protection of important information systems, severely crack down on illegal and criminal activities such as hacker attacks, clean up harmful information such as pornography, gambling and drugs on the Internet, continue to evolve the capital’s cyberspace, and make every effort to create a clean and safe network environment for the Beijing Winter Olympics. Today, the preparations for the Beijing Winter Olympics have entered a critical period of decisive victory. The preparation of the Beijing Winter Olympics is not a matter of one place or one person, and requires efforts from all walks of life. The cybersecurity department hopes that all sectors of the society will fight side by side, fully implement the main responsibility for the cybersecurity risks of the Winter Olympics, and do a solid job of preventing risks and ensuring safety and other cybersecurity work, so as to ensure the safe and smooth holding of the Winter Olympics.

The Beijing Winter Olympics is a major and iconic event in an important historical period in my country. Running the Beijing Winter Olympics is a major event for the party and the country, and it is our solemn commitment to the international community. This year’s 4.29 Capital Cyber ​​Security Day highlights the theme of Winter Olympics security and holds the Winter Olympics Network Security System Construction Summit Forum, which is a specific measure to comprehensively prevent and resolve various risks and ensure the safe and smooth hosting of the Beijing Winter Olympics. This forum will work with all parties to discuss the security measures and countermeasures of the Winter Olympics, and is committed to creating a clear and safe cyberspace, mobilizing a wide range of security responsibilities and security cooperation, and striving to show the world the technology and intelligent elements of the Beijing Winter Olympics. , dedicate a wonderful and safe Winter Olympics to the world.

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