“Researchers at Tianjin University have ranked some of the most commonly used battery chemistries based on the parameters needed for grid energy storage.
Researchers at Tianjin University have ranked some of the most commonly used battery chemistries based on the parameters needed for grid energy storage.
In batteries, different chemistries have different strengths and weaknesses that make them more or less suitable for a certain application, which is why some industries prefer one battery type over another. For example, the starting batteries of gasoline-powered vehicles are usually lead-acid batteries, while the batteries of Electronic products such as notebook computers and mobile phones are generally lithium-ion batteries.
The Tianjin University team’s standardized method for assessing battery performance is a mathematical approach called “rough set theory,” which scores difficult-to-comparison data drawn from existing literature for different battery chemistries.
By examining lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries, zinc-air batteries, nickel/metal hydride batteries, and sodium-sulfur batteries, the research team evaluated their performance in round-trip efficiency, specific energy and capacity, operating voltage, cycle life, self-discharge performance, cost, Performance in terms of environmental impact and safety.
According to the findings, zinc-air batteries lead the way in grid energy storage. Zinc-air batteries have relatively high specific energy and capacity, and the chemistry of this battery is based on a zinc electrode and free oxygen fuel in the air, so it also gets high marks for cost, safety, and eco-friendliness .
Despite these advantages, zinc-air batteries have so far not been able to be widely commercialized because of unresolved issues related to electrodes and electrolytes. For example, the air cathode is due to the four-electron oxygen reduction reaction. The reaction kinetics are slow, resulting in low discharge voltage, high charge voltage, and low energy efficiency. The team also found that the use of alkaline electrolytes in zinc-air devices resulted in passivation and dendritic growth, significantly shortening battery life, while carbonization and moisture loss during charge-discharge cycling are another major problem for zinc-air batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries ranked second in grid energy storage capacity. Such batteries have been widely used in industry and are favored for their high operating voltage, high efficiency, and long cycle life. However, concerns about the source, cost and safety of raw materials are currently detrimental factors for lithium-ion batteries. The research team points out that large-scale application of lithium-ion batteries to stationary energy storage requires optimal battery management and complex recycling routes.
In third place are Ni-MHs (nickel/metal hydrogen devices). Ni-MHs (nickel/metal hydrogen devices) have shown strong promise in grid applications due to their relatively high energy density, high specific capacity, long cycle life and environmental friendliness, according to the research team. potential. However, high cost and low energy efficiency have prevented the technology from scaling up, and such devices can be problematic, especially at lower temperatures.
At the same time, conventional lead-acid batteries exhibit a series of advantages in terms of cycle durability and energy efficiency. On the downside, lead itself is detrimental to human health as well as the environment, and lead-acid units do not perform well with specific energy, capacity, and operating voltage metrics.
Sodium-sulfur batteries are also desirable for large-scale energy storage. The researchers said that this device has been used in small-scale energy storage, showing good performance in terms of high efficiency, operating voltage and cycle life, the disadvantage is that in large-scale energy storage requires higher operating temperature, so in terms of safety. There are certain hidden dangers that need to be managed.
Although a large number of battery technologies have come out today, it is still a great challenge to manufacture batteries with low cost, high performance, high energy density, operational safety and cycle stability. research is necessary. Currently, high-performance potassium-ion batteries with relatively high energy density but low cost are also under investigation.